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Clemson Universi' 




3 1604 019 691 4lT ^URAL HISTORY 

in the 




FEDERAL 
PUBLICATION 



NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 
and on the 
NATIONAL REGISTRY of NATURAL LANDMARKS 

NATURAL RESOURCE REPORT 
NPS/NR/NRTR-90/03 




United States Department of the Interior. National Park Service 



The National Park Service Natural Resource Report Series disseminates information on 
critical, current resource management issues that concern units of the National Park 
System. 

Copies of this report are available from the following: 



Publications Coordinator (FTS) 327-2156 

National Park Service (303) 969-21 56 

Natural Resource Publications Office 
c/o Air Quality Division (AIR) 
P.O. Box 25287 
Denver, CO 80225-0287 

National Park Service (FTS) 268-4285 

Park Planning and Protection (202) 208-4285 

1849"C" Street, NW 

P.O. Box 37127 

Washington, D.C. 20013-7127 



Natural History 

in the 

National Park System 

and on the 

National Registry of Natural Landmarks 

Natural Resource Report 
NPS NR NRTR-90 03 



DEC 10 1330 



A-ll^^OITft^V &l~ ACJZ I 



September 1990 



National Park Service 

USDI NPS 

Washington, D.C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

INTRODUCTION 1 

USING TH'S PUBLICATION 3 

FIGURE i. NATURAL REGIONS 5 

FIGURE 2. THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 6 

NATURAL REGIONS DESCRIPTION 7 

NATURAL HISTORY THEMES 17 

Group I. Landforms of the Present 18 

Group II. Geologic History 21 

Group III. Land Ecosystems 22 

Group IV. Aquatic Ecosystems 27 

THEMATIC REPRESENTATION: NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 33 



North Pacific Border(33) 
South Pacific Border(34) 
Cascade Range(35) 
Sierra Nevada(36) 
Columbia Plateau(37) 
Great Basin(38) 
Mohave-Sonoran Desert(39) 
Chihuahuan Desert - Mexican 
Highlands(40) 
Colorado Plateau(42) 
Northern Rocky Mountains(44) 
Middle Rocky Mountains(45) 



Wyoming Basin(46) 
Southern Rocky Mountains(47) 
Great Plains(48) 
Central Lowlands(50) 
Superior Upland(51) 
Interior Highlands(51) 
Interior Low Plateaus(52) 
Appalachian Plateaus(53) 
Appalachian Ranges(54) 
Piedmont(56) 

New England-Adirondacks(57) 
Atlantic Coastal Plain(58) 



Gulf Coastal Plain(61) 
Florida Peninsula(62) 
Hawaiian lslands(62) 
Pacific Mountain System(63) 
Interior & Western Alaska(66) 
Brooks Range(67) 
Arctic Lowland (68) 
Virgin lslands(69) 
Puerto Rico(69) 
Guam(69) 

American Samoa(70) 
The Trust Territories(70) 



THEMATIC REPRESENTATION: NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARKS 73 



North Pacific Border(73) 
South Pacific Border(73) 
Cascade Range(74) 
Sierra Nevada(75) 
Columbia Plateau(75) 
Great Basin (76) 
Mohave-Sonoran Desert(77) 
Chihuahuan Desert - Mexican 
Highlands(77) 
Colorado Plateau (78) 
Northern Rocky Mountains(78) 
Middle Rocky Mountains(79) 



Wyoming Basin(79) 
Southern Rocky Mountains(80) 
Great Plains(80) 
Central Lowlands(81) 
Superior Upland(85) 
Interior Highlands(86) 
Interior Low Plateaus(86) 
Appalachian Plateaus(87) 
Appalachian Ranges(89) 
Piedmont(89) 

New England-Adirondacks(90) 
Atlantic Coastal Plain (92) 



Gulf Coastal Plain(93) 
Florida Peninsula(94) 
Hawaiian lslands(94) 
Pacific Mountain System(95) 
Interior & Western Alaska(95) 
Brooks Range(96) 
Arctic Lowland (96) 
Virgin lslands(96) 
Puerto Rico(97) 
Guam(97) 
American Samoa(98) 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in-2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/naturalhistoryinOOpark 



INTRODUCTION 



This document has been prepared to identify what natural history themes are 
represented in units of the National Park System and in areas that have been 
designated National Natural Landmarks (NNLs). This publication updates "Part Two of 
the National Park System Plan - Natural History" published in 1972. 

This update considers areas added to the National Park System since 1 972 and 
includes a new section on NNLs organized by regions and themes to highlight 
representation of these resource types outside of the National Park System. This 
update is intended to be a companion to a similar publication addressing cultural 
resources entitled "History and Prehistory in the National Park System and the National 
Historic Landmarks Program." 

The classification system for natural history used in this publication is essentially the 
same as the one used in 1972. Minor changes in theme subcategories were made to 
remain consistent with traditional ecological classification. The definition of themes is 
broad and allows only a general overview of natural feature representation within the 
parks and landmarks. 

The information for this update was provided by the natural resources staffs in the 
National Park Service's (NPS) Washington Office, Regional Offices, and parks. As of 
September 1 990, the National Park System included 356 units with more than 20 
different designations such as national park, national monument, national recreation 
area, national battlefield, and national historic site. For this update, historic sites, 
battlefields, and similar areas less than 100 acres were generally excluded. However, 
in contrast to the 1972 publication, this update includes several parks that have 
important natural features regardless of size or "historic" designation. 

This publication is not a strategy, plan, or proposal for expanding the National Park 
System. It provides a thematic framework for evaluating nominations for new parks 
and plans for managing parks already in the system. To be eligible for favorable 
consideration as an addition to the National Park System , a resource must meet 
established criteria for national significance, suitability, feasibility, and management 
alternatives. This publication is intended primarily to help answer the question of 
suitability by outlining what examples of a specific resource type are currently 
represented in the National Park System. This information also can help in planning 
for existing NPS units by identifying what other units have similar types of natural 
resources. 

The NNLs program was established by the Secretary of the Interior to identify, 
recognize, and encourage the protection of sites containing the best remaining 
examples of ecological and geological components of the nation's natural heritage. 
Candidates for NNLs designation are identified primarily by natural history theme 



studies conducted by qualified scientists. Landmarks are designated by the Secretary 
of the Interior based on nominations from the Director of the National Park Service. 

The NNLs program relies on the voluntary cooperation of owners and managers of the 
sites listed on the National Registry of Natural Landmarks. These include resources on 
both public and private lands. In contrast to units of the National Park System that are 
established by Congress, status as an NNL does not change the ownership of a site, 
is not a land withdrawal, and does not authorize Federal acquisition or management of 
the site. 



USING THIS PUBLICATION 



This thematic framework is intended primarily to provide a basis for comparing 
potential new additions to the National Park System with other candidates and similar 
areas currently in the system. For example, if NPS were studying a site in northeast 
New Mexico, the following steps would be followed: 

1 . Check the map on page 5 to find what physiographic region the site falls within. 
For this sample, we will assume that the site lies within the Southern Rocky 
Mountains physiographic region. 

2. Pages 47 and 48 list all of the natural history themes that characterize this 
region. The study of this site should identify which of those themes are present 
within the study area (some themes do not occur in every region). 

3. For this sample, we also will assume that the site includes examples of a few 
themes under three major headings. Turning to page 47 of the thematic 
framework, we find the following park units listed under those themes: 

SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 

Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM 
Great Sand Dunes NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

*Works of Volcanism 

Geologic History 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Curecanti NRA 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Streams 

Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 
Great Sand Dunes NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 



Not represented 



Turning to the section on the NNLs we find the following areas listed under the 
same themes on page 80. 

SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

*Mountain Systems 

Works of Volcanism 

Valles Caldera, NM 

Geologic History 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Ghost Ranch, NM 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Streams 



* Not represented 

An analysis of the suitability of this area as a potential NPS unit would focus on 
the following questions: 

Could the study area adequately represent the Works of 
Volcanism theme in this region since this is not currently 
represented in the National Park System? 

How does the study area compare with the one NNL 
designated under the Works of Volcanism theme in this 
region? 

How do the other themes represented in the study area 
compare to similar resources in the park units listed under 
each theme? For example, do the mountains and streams 
in the study area include some unusual biological or other 
features that are very different from resources found in the 
four park units listed under those headings? Do these four 
parks encompass an adequate example of these features? 

Are the parks listed as having an example of a theme 
managing their resources to focus on that theme? For 
example, although Curecanti NRA includes examples of 
Geologic History from the Triassic-Cretaceous period, 
protection and interpretation of this theme may not be a 
focus of attention in a unit managed primarily as a 
recreation area. 



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NATIONAL PARK SYSTE 




The following descriptions of natural regions are condensed from descriptions in "Part 
Two of the National Park System Plan: Natural History, 1972," with the exceptions of 
American Samoa and the Trust Territories, which are new. The Hawaiian Islands have 
been treated as one region, as have the Trust Territories. 

Descriptions of natural history themes are those found in the above publication with 
the following few revisions. "Tundra" has been expanded to describe three subtypes. 
"Boreal forest" now includes subalpine forests of the Sierra-Cascade ranges. "Pacific 
forest" now excludes subalpine (boreal) forests of the Sierra-Cascade ranges, and 
"Deserts" now includes Great Basin Desert, to be consistent with traditional ecological 
classification and with regional discussion in the 1972 Plan. 

North Pacific Border 

This region includes the Olympic Mountains of Washington, the Coast Ranges 
of Oregon and northern California, and the Klamath Mountains of northern 
California and southern Oregon. Sand dunes border much of the coast in 
Oregon. Major rivers include the Columbia and large coastal streams. Lakes 
are a significant feature. Glacial sculpturing is particularly striking in the Olympic 
Mountains. Steep bluffs border most of the beaches. Luxuriant coniferous 
forest, including redwoods in southern Oregon and northern California, occupies 
the coastal region. Dry coniferous forest occurs at middle elevations in the 
Klamath Mountains and on the east slopes of the Coast Range in southern 
Oregon and northern California. Estuaries are extensive in this region. Offshore 
waters of the California Current are cold. 

South Pacific Border 

This region includes Coast Ranges, the Transverse Ranges, and the Peninsular 
Ranges of California. The Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers are the major 
surface water features. Steep cliffs and sandy beaches occur commonly along 
the coast. Dry coniferous forests on the mountains and chaparral, a product of 
the Mediterranean climate of coastal southern California, are the principal 
vegetation types. The cool California Current is warmer here than in 
Washington and Oregon. 

Cascade Range 

The Cascade Range, with its numerous volcanoes, extends from Washington to 
northern Caiifornia. The Columbia River crosses the region from east to west. 
Lakes and streams are abundant in the heavily glaciated uplands. Boreal forest 
and some tundra cover the high elevations, with Pacific forest on the west 
slopes. Dry coniferous forests occur elsewhere at middle and lower elevations. 

7 



Sierra Nevada 

The largely granitic Sierra Nevada stretches 400 miles south from the Cascade 
Range in central California. The steep east face of the range rises 1 1 ,000 feet 
above the Owens Valley. Mt. Whitney is the highest point at 1 4,495 feet. 
Glacial lakes, including Tahoe, are numerous. Alpine tundra, boreal forest, and 
dry coniferous forest are well represented. Pacific forest, with giant sequoia, 
occurs on the west slope, as does chaparral and oak woodland in the western 
foothills. 

Columbia Plateau 

The Columbia Plateau, consisting of broad lava plains and various mountain 
ranges, occupies eastern Washington, eastern Oregon, and southern Idaho. 
Deep gorges, such as those of the Snake River, have been cut into the piateau. 
Much of the region is arid and many lakes are saline. The Columbia, with its 
major tributary, the Snake, is the principal river system. Alpine tundra and 
boreal forest similar to that of the northern Rocky Mountains occur on the 
highest elevations. Dry coniferous forest is more extensive. Grassland, now 
greatly altered by cultivation and grazing, is the natural vegetation of most of 
eastern Washington, eastern Oregon and southern Idaho. Sagebrush desert 
occurs in much of eastern Washington, Oregon, and southern Idaho. 

Great Basin 

This region, which extends from parts of eastern California to eastern Utah, 
consists of numerous desert basins separated by mountain ranges. Many of 
these basins have an intermittent lakebed in its lowest portion. The Great Basin 
contains more than 160 isolated mountain ranges aligned roughly north-south. 
Permanent surface water is uncommon. Most of the permanent lakes are 
saline. At the lower elevations, low rainfall and cold winters have resulted in 
desert vegetation characterized by sagebrush and shadscale. Dry coniferous 
forest is extensive on lower slopes of mountains, and some boreal forest and 
isolated bits of tundra occur on the highest mountains. 

Mohave-Sonoran Desert 

The Mohave and Sonoran deserts occupy southeastern California, 
southernmost Nevada, and southern Arizona. Their physiographic features are 
roughly similar to those of the Great Basin. The major river system is the lower 
Colorado River. Both the Mohave and Sonoran deserts have hot summers and 
warm winters but their vegetation is different. The Mohave Desert of southern 
Nevada and southeastern California has simple plant communities dominated by 
creosotebush and bur-sage, with Joshua trees at 3000-4000 feet. The Sonoran 
Desert, mainly in Baja California and inland Mexico but extending into southern 
Arizona, has much more diverse vegetation characterized by columnar cacti. 



Chihuafruan Desert - Mexican Highland 

The main portion of this region is in Mexico but it extends into southern New 
Mexico and western Texas. The desert areas lie at 4000-6000 feet. 
Geologically diverse types of mountains rise above this base. Sand dunes are 
common. Surface water is uncommon. The Rio Grande is the major river. 
Ocotillo, creosotebush, mesquite, and numerous cactuses are among the most 
conspicuous plant species of the Chihuahuan Desert. Grassland and shrub 
savanna are widespread. On the mountains are chaparral at middle elevations 
and dry coniferous forest higher up. Isolated stands of boreal forest occur. 

Colorado Plateau 

This dry deeply-incised plateau covers parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and 
Colorado. Surface water is uncommon. The Colorado is the major river 
system. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian through Eocene are exposed 
in the Plateau, most notably in the Grand Canyon. Much of the region is semi- 
arid to arid and has "cold desert" vegetation similar to that of the Great Basin. 
Grasslands once may have been common but most are now greatly disturbed 
and invaded by sagebrush. Dry coniferous forest is widespread, and boreal 
forest similar to that of the southern and middle Rocky Mountains occurs at 
higher elevations. Alpine tundra is found only on a few high mountains. 

Northern Rocky Mountains 

This section of the Rockies extends over western Montana, northeastern Idaho, 
and northeastern Washington. Some of its ranges exhibit spectacular glacial 
topography. Many of the headwaters of the Missouri and Columbia rivers rise 
here. Lakes and streams are abundant. Alpine tundra is fairly extensive 
because timberline is at 7000-8000 feet. Boreal forest, dominated by 
Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir, occurs at high altitudes. Dry coniferous 
forest occurs mainly in western Montana and much of Idaho. Pacific forest 
extends to northwestern Montana because of mild, moist Pacific air carried 
inland in a narrow corridor. 

Middle Rocky Mountains 

This region extends from southern Montana to northeastern Utah. Igneous 
activity in the region has been concentrated in the Yellowstone National park 
area, where the most outstanding hot water phenomena in the world occur. 
Spectacular canyons have been cut by the Green and Yampa Rivers. Most of 
the numerous lakes are of glacial origin. The Middle Rocky Mountains contain 
some of the prime areas of alpine vegetation in the United States. Boreal forest 
occupies the subalpine zone and dry coniferous forest the lower elevations. 

Wyoming Basin 

The topography of this region resembles that of the Great Plains. Dominated by 
large structural basins, the region also has several mountain ranges and much 
badland topography. The major streams and rivers typically rise in mountains 
adjacent to the Basin and flow more or less directly through it. The vegetation 
is a semidesert of sagebrush and grasses. 

9 



Southern Rocky Mountains 

The Southern Rocky Mountains extend from southeastern Wyoming to north- 
central New Mexico, with most of the region in central Colorado. The 
headwaters of the Platte, Colorado, and Arkansas rivers are found here. Small 
alpine lakes, most of glacial origin, are scattered throughout the mountains. 
Alpine tundra covers large areas between 1 1 ,000 and 14,000 feet elevation. 
Boreal forest is extensive at high elevations and dry coniferous forest at low 
elevations. 

Great Plains 

Reaching from the Rio Grande of Texas north to Montana and North Dakota 
and to Great Bear Lake in Canada, the Great Plains region is largely plateau- 
like. The Black Hills rise 3000-4000 feet above the surrounding plains, and 
many other outlier mountain ranges occur in west-central Montana. The White 
River badlands of South Dakota and the Little Missouri badlands of North 
Dakota are outstanding examples of this topographic type. Large, low gradient 
rivers, fewer small permanent streams, and few lakes characterize this large 
area. Short-grass prairie is the most widespread vegetation type, with mixed- 
grass prairie in the eastern Great Plains. Boreal forest and dry coniferous forest 
occur in the Black Hills, juniper-oak savanna in central Texas. 

Central Lowlands 

This region covers a large part of the central United States, from north central 
Texas to eastern North Dakota and western Ohio. The extremely flat 
topography is largely the result of glacial drift which filled low places. Surface 
water ranges from intermittent small steams in prairie lands to the Great Lakes. 
Lakes occur mostly in the glaciated northern part of the region, and major rivers 
of the Mississippi system in the southern part. Various subdivisions of the 
eastern deciduous forest-beech-maple, maple-basswood, northern hardwoods, 
and oak-hickory-occupy much of the region, with tall-grass and mixed-grass 
prairies in the western portion. 

Superior Upland 

Repeatedly covered by advancing and retreating continental ice sheets during 
the Pleistocene epoch, this region is characterized by numerous lakes ranging 
in size from small ones to Lake Superior. It occupies northwestern Michigan, 
northern Wisconsin, and northeastern Minnesota. Precambrian rock of the 
Canadian shield underlies most of the region. Boreal forest and northern 
hardwoods are the principal vegetation types. 

Interior Highlands 

Stretching from southern Missouri to northwestern Arkansas and eastern 
Oklahoma, the Interior Highlands consist of the Ozark Plateau in the northern 
part and the Ouachita Mountains in the south, separated by the valley of the 
Arkansas River. Caverns and springs are abundant in the limestone plateaus of 



10 



southern Missouri. Oak-hickory forest is the dominant vegetation throughout 
this region. 

Interior Low Plateaus 

This region, mostly in western Kentucky and Tennessee, consists of a series of 
plateaus separated by prominent escarpments. The region is characterized by 
relatively large rivers and streams flowing generally northwest. Sinkholes and 
caverns are abundant in the extensive karst topography. The natural vegetation 
is western mesophytic forest, consisting of a mosaic ranging from mixed 
mesophytic forest to grassland. 

Appalachian Plateaus 

This long, narrow region between the Appalachian Ranges and the Interior Low 
Plateaus extends from New York to northern Alabama. The topography 
appears rolling, but major stream valleys are deeply incised. Lakes, including 
the Finger Lakes of New York, occur mainly in the glaciated northern part of this 
region. Rivers and streams are numerous and include headwaters of the Ohio, 
Delaware, and Susquehanna rivers. Mixed mesophytic forest, a very diverse 
subdivision of the eastern deciduous forest, occupies most of the region, with 
northern hardwoods in the northern section. 

Appalachian Ranges 

This region consists largely of the Blue Ridge Mountains and the ridge and 
valley physiographic province immediately to the west. The northernmost 
extension reaches into southern Vermont. Streams and rivers, usually small, 
are numerous. Lakes occur primarily in the glaciated northern portion. Caves 
are numerous, especially in the Great Valley of Virginia and the extreme 
southern part of the region. Boreal forest occurs at high elevations in West 
Virginia, Virginia, North Carolina, and Tennessee, and northern hardwoods in 
the northern end of the region. Oak forests are much more widespread. 

Piedmont 

The Piedmont region borders the Appalachian Ranges on the east, extending 
from southernmost Connecticut to south-central Alabama. This plateau is gently 
rolling with occasional monadnocks. The area is characterized by large, slow 
rivers and few natural lakes. Oak-pine forest, another subdivision of the eastern 
deciduous forest, occupies most of the Piedmont. 

New England-Adirondacks 

Four major mountain groups occur in this region: the Adirondacks, part of the 
Canadian Shield; and three groups that are part of the Appalachian chain-the 
Taconic Mountains, the Green Mountains; and the White Mountains. The entire 
region was glaciated and is well provided with lakes and streams. The coast is 
generally steep and rocky. The Continental Shelf north of Cape Cod is broad. 
The cold Labrador Current carries abundant nutrients. The estuaries of New 
England are narrow embayments with open access to the sea. Alpine tundra 
occurs on a few peaks of the Adirondacks, many in the White Mountains, and 

11 



on Maine's Mount Katahdin. Northern hardwoods are the dominant vegetation 
type, with boreal forest common at high elevations and in Maine. Oak forest 
dominates in southern New England. 

Atlantic Coastal Plain 

This region, averaging 75 to 100 miles in width, extends from Long Island to 
northernmost Florida. Topography is flat to rolling, with maximum elevations up 
to 800 feet at the western edge. The region is characterized by broad, slowly 
flowing rivers and streams. Large salt and fresh-water marshes adjoin the 
rivers. Swamps cover large areas. Beaches are characteristically broad and 
sandy. Long, narrow barrier islands are present off the coasts of North 
Carolina, Virginia, Maryland, New Jersey, and Long Island. The Sea Islands lie 
off the coast of Georgia and South Carolina. Offshore waters influenced by the 
Labrador Current are cool south to Cape Hatteras. South of Cape Hatteras, the 
warm subtropical waters of the Gulf Stream dominate. Mixed forests of oak, 
pine, beech, and other species dominate the uplands. Bald cypress, oak, and 
swamp black gum dominate swamps and river floodplains. 

Gulf Coastal Plain 

Wider than the Atlantic Coastal Plain, the Gulf Coastal Plain extends from 
northwestern Florida to southern Texas and up the Mississippi Valley to 
southeastern Missouri and adjacent Kentucky. The broad alluvial valley and 
delta of the Mississippi River are outstanding geological features. Many other 
large, low gradient rivers discharge into the Gulf of Mexico. Extensive marshes 
are present along the coastline of the whole region and inland in the Yazoo 
Basin. Broad, sandy beaches are characteristic of the Gulf Coast. Extensive 
barrier islands occur off the coast of Texas and the Florida Panhandle. Offshore 
waters are warm. Vegetation of the Gulf Coastal Plain varies with the geological 
substrate. Pine forests occupy large areas, and live oak forests are common 
near the coast. Various southern hardwood mixtures occur, with swamp forests 
of bald cypress and water tupelo along river floodplains, especially the 
Mississippi. Coastal prairie, similar to tall-grass prairie but more diverse, 
occupies much of coastal Texas and Louisiana. 

Florida Peninsula 

The Florida Peninsula is part of a platform of calcareous rocks which form the 
coastal plain and Continental Shelf at the southeastern corner of the United 
States. The emergent portion is a low plain. The southern tip is very low-lying 
and swampy. Water from Lake Okeechobee flows southward and westward for 
up to 1 00 miles before reaching the sea. Thousands of large and small 
solution-type lakes are found in north and central Florida. Swamps are 
extensive. Rivers and streams are of very low gradient. The beaches are 
sandy. Mangrove swamps, broad salt marshes, and coral reefs also occur 
along the coast. Karst features are prominent in north-central Florida. Southern 
mixed forest of beech, sweet gum, pine, and other species are dominant in 
northern Florida, with cypresses and hardwoods in swamps. Southern Florida 
is distinctly different, with subtropical pines, broadleaf evergreens, palms and 

12 



dry prairies on the drier sites. Sawgrass, wet prairie, freshwater swamp forest, 
mangroves, and salt marshes occur in wet areas. Offshore waters are warm. 



Hawaiian Islands 

The 1 ,600-mile-long Hawaiian Archipelago, of volcanic origin, consists of the 
islands of Hawaii, the Maui Island group, Oahu, Kauai and Niihau, and the 
Leeward Islands. In general, the volcanoes became extinct from northwest to 
southeast with the old and greatly eroded Leeward Islands the oldest, Mauna 
Loa and Kilauea the youngest, and the remaining volcanoes intermediate in age. 
Mauna Loa and Kilauea, on Hawaii, are still very active. Hawaii's Mauna Kea, 
13,796 feet above sea level, is the highest peak in the Pacific. Spectacular deep 
gorges and sheer cliffs occur on several of the islands. Shorelines range from 
extensive sand beaches to sea cliffs. Coral reefs have developed along some 
shores, notably in the Leeward Islands and on the leeward side of East Molokai. 
Mountainous topography, varied substrates, and great elevational range 
combine to produce complex patterns of local climate and vegetation. Annual 
rainfall sometimes reaches 600 inches at high elevations on Kauai, whereas 
leeward sides of mountains may be quite dry. Temperatures range from near 
tropical at sea level to alpine above tree line. Although much of the original 
vegetation has been altered or destroyed, samples persist, including lowland 
rain forest, dryland sclerophyllous forest, montane rain forest, and high-altitude 
tussock grassland and microphyllous scrub. Endemism is very high though 
less among marine species than terrestrial species. On land there are great 
differences in biota from island to island. 

Pacific Mountain System 

This region consists mainly of a broad belt of ranges paralleling the southern 
coast of Alaska. These ranges include the coast range of southeast Alaska; the 
St. Elias Range, with elevations to 18,008 feet; the Chugach-Kenai Mountains; 
the Wrangell Range, with elevations to 16,523 feet; the Talkeetna Mountains; the 
Alaska Range, including 20,320-foot Denali, highest peak in North America; and 
the Aleutian Range, extending 1 ,600 miles from west of Anchorage to the 
western tip of the Aleutian Island chain. About 80 major volcanoes, many still 
active, are contained in the Aleutian Range. Nearly all the high ranges were 
covered and sculpted by glaciers during the Pleistocene Epoch, and 20,000 
square miles of glaciers remain in Alaska. The Pacific Mountain System 
contains an enormous number of lakes and streams. The rugged coastline of 
Southeast Alaska is cut by channels, straits, and fjords; the Alexander 
Archipelago contains many islands of various sizes. The Kodiak Island-Gulf of 
Alaska area and the Aleutian Islands have a rocky, steep coastline. Treeless 
areas consist of glaciers, permanent snow fields, gravel and rock, barren 
volcanic peaks and recent lava flows, as well as dry and moist tundra. Boreal 
forest composed of white spruce and other species is generally restricted to the 
two plains regions~the Copper River plateau and Cook Inlet-Susitna lowlands- 
and along low-lying stream courses. Pacific forest, with sitka spruce, western 
hemlock, and other species, occurs along the coast to the Kenai Peninsula. 

13 



Interior and Western Alaska 

This is a region of diverse topography drained primarily by the Yukon and 
Kuskokwin rivers, the largest in Alaska. An irregular assemblage of intricately 
dissected upland and broad alluvium-covered lowlands characterizes the 
topography. Discontinuous groups of mountains occur on the rolling upland. 
Water types range from large, clear, glacially formed lakes to brown sphagnum 
bog ponds, and from clear, torrential mountain streams to huge, slow-moving, 
silt-laden rivers. Surface water is a dominant feature in many portions of the 
region. Rainfall is low, but evaporation is also low and surface water does not 
percolate because of permafrost. Pleistocene glaciation was of quite limited 
extent, occurring locally over the highlands. Much of Alaska's west coast is 
bordered by coastal lowland, including the vast, marshy Yukon-Kuskokwim 
delta. Interior Alaska vegetation is a huge mosaic of forest, muskeg, and 
tundra. Small and large patches of dry and wet tundra occur. Boreal forest 
generally occupies the lower elevations up to 2,000-3000 feet in the interior, and 
200-800 feet in western Alaska. White spruce is the dominant species on better 
drained sites, black spruce on poorly drained soils. 

Brooks Range 

The Brooks Range includes a group of mountain masses extending from the 
Canadian border across most of Alaska. Several large glacial lakes lie in 
mountain valleys formed by ancient glaciers and dammed by morainic debris. 
The Range separates waters flowing northward into the Arctic Ocean from those 
flowing southward into the Yukon River tributaries and westward into Kotzebue 
Sound. The Noatak River, the only major river lying entirely in the Brooks 
Range, bisects the range at the western end. There is considerable evidence of 
Pleistocene glaciation, though it was not as extensive as in the southern Alaska 
ranges. The vegetation is primarily dry tundra above 2,500 feet and moist 
tundra on poorly drained sites below 2,500 feet. Limited areas of boreal forest 
dominated by white spruce occur along river courses at low elevations on the 
southern slope of the Brooks Range. 

Arctic Lowland 

The Arctic Lowland, or Arctic Slope, 100-200 miles wide, stretches across 
northern Alaska. Two distinct parts are evident-the southern Foothills Belt and 
northern Coastal Plain. While the Foothills Belt has very irregular topography, 
the Coastal Plain is very flat and nearly half of it is covered with water. 
Northward flowing rivers originating in the Brooks Range or foothills meander 
over wide flood plains. The region is marked by thousands of lakes and low, 
wet areas. The arctic shoreline nearly everywhere has earth banks 3 to 30 feet 
high behind narrow pebble beaches. Underlain by permafrost, the Arctic 
Lowland is a vast treeless plain. Moist tundra predominates in the Foothills Belt 
and wet sedge tundra on the Coastal Plain. 



14 



Virgin Islands 

The U.S. Virgin Islands, a part of the Lesser Antilles Leeward Islands, include 50 
islands and cays of which St. Croix, St. Thomas, and St. John are of significant 
size. St. Thomas and St. John are generally mountainous and made up mostly 
of volcanic rocks, whereas St. Croix has three major landforms--the Northeast 
Range, the East Range, and an intervening coastal plain. Shorelines vary, 
including rocky, coral bank, coral beach, boulder or gravel beach, sand beach, 
and mangrove swamp. Considerable reef development has occurred around 
St. John, at the eastern end of St. Thomas, around the eastern two-thirds of St. 
Croix, and at Buck Island. The major vegetation types, now much disturbed, 
are moist forest, dry forest, dry forest with cactus, cactus woodland, wind- 
flattened scrub, mangrove, beach vegetation, and Croton-acacia scrub. 

Puerto Rico 

Puerto Rico, 110 miles long and 35 miles wide, is the smallest and most easterly 
of the Greater Antilles. Mountainous topography reaching elevations of 2,000 to 
4,000 feet runs the length of the island. Foothills and coastal lowlands comprise 
the regions north and south of the mountains. Several continuously flowing 
streams drain the rainy windward portion of Puerto Rico. On the dry leeward 
slopes, intermittent steams predominate. Mountain streams are swift-flowing, 
lowland streams are slow moving and have broad flood plains. The east and 
west coasts are characterized by palm-fringed beaches strung between 
headlands and marine cliffs. Much of the north coast has 200-foot marine cliffs 
and protective beaches. Most of the south coast is gently sloping. Extensive 
karst topography occurs in the limestone regions. Vegetation zones include the 
littoral zone, lowland rain forest, seasonal evergreen forest, hill scrub, semi- 
deciduous forest, montane forest, montane scrub, and elfin forest. Along the 
coast, saltwater ponds, lagoons, and shallows support algal meadows and turtle 
grass beds. Reef complexes support marine algal crusts, kelp beds, and 
mangroves. Mangroves form a broken ring around the island. 

Guam 

The largest (212 square miles) and most southerly of the Mariana Islands, 
Guam lies in the western Pacific Ocean 1 ,200 miles east of the Philippines, well 
within the tropical zone. The northern half of Guam is a broad, gently tilting 
limestone plateau bordered by steep cliffs. The southern half is primarily a 
dissected volcanic upland. Permanent streams occur only in the southern half 
of Guam. The island has three basic types of shoreline: coral limestone, low 
swampy coast, and sandy beach. Significant vegetation types are forest of 
elevated hard limestones, ravine forest of southern Guam, marshes and 
swamps, strand vegetation, grassland or savanna vegetation, and vegetation of 
the argillaceous limestone area. 

American Samoa 

American Samoa, with a total land area of 76 square miles, includes the 
inhabited islands of Tutuila, Tau, Olosega, Ofu, and Aunuu and two uninhabited 
coral atolls named Rose Island. Swains Island, not a part of the Archipelago, is 

15 



also a part of American Samoa. Except for the coral atolls the islands are rocky 
and were formed by volcanic activity within the past 7 million years. Tutuila, the 
largest island, rises to an elevation of 2,142 feet. Rainfall is 100 to 300 inches; 
temperatures average 78-80°F for all months. Lowland and montane rain forest 
are the principal natural vegetation types. 

The Trust Territories 

This region consists of the Mariana, Marshall, and Caroline Islands, located in 
the southwest Pacific. These island groups consist of more than 2,000 islands, 
with a total land area of about 700 square miles. Three basic types of islands 
occur here: low coral atolls, high islands of volcanic origin, and islands that 
represent a combination of coral limestone and volcanic uplift. The highest 
elevation, 3,166 feet, occurs on Agrihan, in the northern Marianas. The climate 
is warm and humid, with temperatures usually ranging between 75°F and 85°F. 
Rainfall on larger volcanic islands may reach 300 to 400 inches a year, but on 
atolls in the northern Marshalls, annual rainfall may be as low as 20 to 30 
inches, with prolonged periods of drought. Natural vegetation is limited on coral 
atolls, but dense rain forest grows in the interior of high volcanic islands. In the 
northern Marianas, areas resembling savanna, intermixed with dense forests, 
occur. 



16 



In identifying themes, two major interrelated categories of natural phenomena must be 
recognized. One, the geological category , comprises phenomena that result from 
forces and processes acting through and upon the earth's inorganic substance to 
produce landforms and other evidences of nonliving entities. The biological world is 
here represented as fossilized records of organisms but the fossils and the processes 
through which they are preserved are geologic. Themes within the geological category 
must take into account the historical aspects of the development of the earth's surface 
and the evolution of life. In this respect, the geological time scale, recognized and 
generally accepted by geologists, provides a useful and workable tool. Individual 
themes must embrace segments of time of sufficient duration to include closely related 
events and associated land structures, environments, and stratigraphic formations, 
including fossiliferous deposits. Certain existing landforms and landscape features are 
of such prominence and importance as to require recognition and study under special 
themes outside of the historical context. 

The second major category covers biological forms and processes. Since the foci of 
interest and importance lie in the interactions among the biological components and 
the abiotic environments, as well as in the individual life forms, this is more properly 
designated as the ecological category . 

Within the ecological category , themes are based primarily on the ecosystem, which is 
defined as the natural community including its component organisms together with the 
abiotic environment, all forming an interacting system. As in the geological category, 
there are some biological phenomena that have intrinsic interest apart from the 
ecosystem in which they occur. 

The basic philosophy of a system of themes has implications and connotations that 
require explanation. Natural history is complex. To individual scientists, as to 
individual laymen, it may have very different meanings. These differences arise from 
the consideration of these entities and processes from various points of view. 
Collectively among human minds, natural history, therefore, becomes polydimensional 
and difficult to resolve into a generally acceptable rational system of categories of a 
nature that would be useful for purposes of evaluation and selection of representative 
areas. The only apparently reasonable alternative is a system of themes such as 
outlined below. These themes involve not only entities and processes but also the 
aspects from which they are viewed. By their very nature, themes intersect and 
overlap. Because of this, no single area is characterized solely by a single theme, 
although a single theme may be of overwhelmingly dominant importance. 



17 



GROUP I. LANDFORMS OF THE PRESENT 

Landforms of the present include the principal features of the existing natural 
landscapes. Each landform possesses certain distinguishing qualities and 
characteristics which set it apart from the others. Moreover, each is a manifestation of 
geologic events and processes that have determined its size, shape, composition, and 
structure. The qualities and characteristics of landforms, therefore, possess a dual 
significance. This theme describes the character of the landscape as a physical and 
scenic entity as it exists today, and present and past geologic events and processes. 

Each of the themes embraces landforms with common major qualities and 
characteristics. The geologic events and processes which created the landforms 
within each theme are usually similar in some respects, but this is not always true. For 
example, plains are always level - or nearly level - areas of some considerable extent, 
but the underlying rocks may vary greatly in composition and structure. 

Theme 1. Plains, plateaus, and mesas 

Plains, plateaus, and mesas are characterized by their level, or nearly level, 
surface. Plateaus and mesas are essentially segments of plains standing at 
some considerable elevation above the surrounding country. Plateaus may vary 
from the norm, however, in that their surfaces may be highly dissected by 
erosion or form the bases of mountains rising to still higher elevations. 

Theme 2. Cuestas and hogbacks 

Cuestas are asymmetric ridges possessing a tilted dip-slope surface on one 
side, which is held up by a rock stratum relatively resistant to erosion, and 
possessing a steeper erosion scarp on the other side cut across the strata. 
Depending on the amount of cross drainage, their crest may be straight or 
scalloped. Cuestas are especially characteristic of the semi-arid West, and may 
form the foothills of higher mountains. Hogbacks are sharp-crested ridges 
formed on the more resistant rocks where the rock dips are steeper than those 
prevailing in cuestas. 

Theme 3. Mountain systems 

Although mountains may represent various types-folded, fault block, dome, or 
volcanic-all of them are eminences standing either alone or as part of a range 
or group. Mountains stand conspicuously above the surrounding country, as a 
rule, and are characterized by relatively small summit areas and frequently by a 
considerable extent of bare rock surface. Their form, composition, and 
structure are manifestations of a wide variety of geologic events and processes 
and constitute veritable record books of the Earth's history. Particularly worthy 
of attention are the folded structures visible in some areas of bare rock 
exposure. 

Theme 4. Works of volcanism 

All landforms of the present representing the works of volcanism have been 
created by the movement and the intrusion or the extrusion of molten masses of 

18 



rock called magma which subsequently cooled and solidified. Even today, in 
some places, this magma reaches the surface in a molten condition and is 
extruded explosively to leave a crater or as extensive lava flows prior to 
solidification. Cone volcanoes, lava flows, and ash necks become prominent 
land features chiefly where they remain as walls and pinnacles following erosion 
of the invaded country rock. The surfaces of lava flows in many places have 
assumed bizarre shapes owing to flowage of lava after the surface is partly 
cooled, and intricate caverns develop below the surface. Lava flows, sills, and 
dikes commonly break into hexagonal columns perpendicular to the cooling 
surface, and these columns may produce striking erosion features. Calderas 
are large circular basins associated with volcanic activity, and were produced 
either by erosion blowouts, or as subsidence basins. 

Theme 5. Hot water phenomena 

Hot water phenomena such as geysers, hot springs, fumaroles, bubbling 
paintpots, hydrothermally altered or colored terrain, and siliceous sinter terraces 
are closely related in that they require water and sources of heat. As a rule, 
such features are found in areas still subject to volcanism or where volcanism 
has occurred in the comparatively recent geologic past. 

Theme 6. Sculpture of the land 

This theme includes landforms produced by erosive action of water and wind, 
landslides, and other physical or chemical landshaping events or phenomena. 
Features resulting from the sculpture of the land by these processes commonly 
appear as "landforms superimposed upon landforms" such as occur when a 
stream valley or badlands topography is developed on a plateau or a mesa, or 
within a mountain system. Bare rock canyons, buttes, and rock needles are 
carved out of the bedrock. Pedestal or toadstool rocks usually have a hard cap 
rock which has protected weaker underlying strata from erosion. 

Theme 7. Eolian landforms 

Sand dunes oriented both perpendicular and parallel to directions of major wind 
movement are prominent topographic features in places. Their shapes are 
determined in part by the influence of vegetation. The composing material may 
be quartz, calcareous, or gypsum sand. 

Theme 8. River systems and lakes 

River systems and lakes are noteworthy features of the natural landscapes of 
which they are a part. Many rivers, not yet at grade, are characterized by 
waterfalls over the harder rock ledges. Others have reached grade and now 
meander in alluvial valleys. Some meandering rivers have been rejuvenated to 
produce incised meanders which may have vertical canyon walls. 

Lakes bear a close relationship to the steams flowing into them which makes it 
practicable to include both rive systems and lakes within the same theme. River 
systems and lakes are usually within or superimposed upon other landforms as 
in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks. Here the upper reaches of river 

19 



systems and a number of lakes lie within and upon the Sierra Nevada which is 
itself an outstanding example of a fault-block mountain system. The valley sides 
of both rivers and lakes commonly reveal evidences of earlier geologic history in 
the form of terraces. 

Theme 9. Works of glaciers 

The works of glaciers include landforms produced by both mountain and 
continental glaciers. Among these forms or features are cirques, aretes, tarns, 
hanging valleys, canyons with U-shaped transverse profiles, moraines, drumlins, 
eskers, and kames. The glaciers and their associated features on the Mount 
Rainier cone volcano are classic examples of this superimposed relationship. 
Glacial striae in thoroughly scoured areas are prominent features in many areas. 

Theme 10. Seashores, lakeshores, and islands 

Along seashores and lakeshores, landforms occur which are peculiar to these 
environments and which have been produced by natural processes at work 
within them. Eroded cliffs, stacks, beaches, dunes, barrier beaches, sandbars, 
hooks, and sandpits are examples of landforms in this category. Closely related 
features are the offshore islands of many regions; these show transitions to 
more remote islands of other regions. Other landforms, of themselves worthy of 
recognition, are normally superposed on islands. 

Theme 11. Coral islands, reefs, and atolls 

Coral islands, fringing reefs, barrier reefs, and atolls are landforms produced by 
the work of living organisms acting in concert with other processes. These 
landforms are always interesting and possess outstanding scientific value and 
beauty. The largest thing built by living organisms is not the Great Wall of China 
or the great power and irrigation projects of today, but, rather, the enormous 
barrier reef fringing Australia's northeastern coast constructed by corals and 
algae. 

Theme 12. Caves and springs 

Caves are subterranean features, most of which have been formed by solution 
of limestone or dolomite, though deposition of calcareous materials has 
alternated, in many instances with solution, and may have been the most recent 
event. Many caves are associated with underground streams. Locally, the rock 
cover over parts of such streams has been dissolved or otherwise eroded so 
that the stream is subaerial in parts of its course, underground in other parts. 
The open valley parts of such "blind rivers" or "lost rivers" are fascinating 
elements of the local landscape. In a more advanced stage of erosion, natural 
bridges may be formed. Many large steams that have flowed underground for 
considerable distances reappear at the surface as spectacular springs. 



20 



GROUP II. GEOLOGIC HISTORY 

The records of the geologic history of the earth are found in the rocks. These records 
may be read from the composition, structure, and relationships of rocks and the fossils 
they contain. Earth history embraces a period of billions of years. The development of 
the themes involves the location, identification, and evaluation of the more significant 
geologic records in terms of their value, usefulness, and suitability in illustrating the 
history of the Earth and its life. 

Theme 13. Precambrian era 

This theme embraces the entire span of the Precambrian Era between about 3 
billion and 600 million years ago. This time interval is characterized as The 
Morning of Life for within it the first life— algae, fungi, and soft-bodied marine 
plants and animals-developed on the earth. The distribution of Precambrian 
rocks is worldwide, but in the United States rocks of this age are found in the 
Cordilleran region and the Appalachian Mountains. They also occur in the Lake 
Superior region and in a few localities of the southern midcontinent west of the 
Mississippi River. 

Theme 14. Cambrian - Early Silurian periods 

The Cambrian, Ordovician, and Early Silurian periods«a time span between 
about 600 and 420 million years ago-was the age of primitive invertebrates. 
Life forms were restricted to the water and were, in time, dominated by shellfish 
of a bewildering variety. Trilobites, brachiopods, sponges, and corals thrived, 
and jawless fish representing the first vertebrates made their appearance. 

Theme 15. Late Silurian - Devonian periods 

The Late Silurian and Devonian periods-a time span between about 420 and 
350 million years ago-embraced the rise of vertebrates and the first forest. Life 
forms continued to exist primarily in the water, but terrestrial life began with the 
first land plants. During Devonian time, plant growth attained tree size; also 
primitive, land-living creatures became more firmly established and amphibians 
evolved. 

Theme 16. Mississippian - Permian periods 

The Mississippian, Pennsylvanian, and Permian periods include a span 
approximately between 350 and 220 million years ago. Crinoids attained their 
culmination; ammonoids and their successors, the ammonites, oeveloped; the 
earliest reptiles appeared, and fish, including over 200 species of sharks, 
flourished. Trilobites became extinct but coal-swamp forests supporting a wide 
variety of insects prevailed. 

Theme 17. Triassic - Cretaceous periods 

Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous periods, a time interval between some 220 
and 70 million years ago, has been called the age of reptiles. This span 
embraces the dominance and extinction of dinosaurs and the flourishing of sea 



21 



going and flying reptiles. Modern plant types were on the rise during the latter 
part of this time interval. 

Theme 18. Paleocene - Eocene epochs 

The Paleocene and Eocene epochs- between some 70 and 40 million years 
ago-embraced the time of the emerging dominance of mammals. Mammals, 
most of them different from those of today, filled niches which had been vacated 
by the extinct mammal-like reptiles, dinosaurs, and pterodactyls. Modern 
marine animals and fresh water fishes were on the rise. 

Theme 19. Oligocene - Recent epochs 

The Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Recent epochs- beginning 
about 40 million years ago and extending to the present time- has been called 
the "Golden Age of Mammals". During this period modern life forms became 
well established. The age of prehistoric camels, horses, and dozens of other 
mammals, descendants of which are common today, are included. This is also 
the time (Pleistocene) of the remarkable large mammals of the ice age, and the 
development of humans and their civilizations, as well as all modern life forms. 

GROUP III. LAND ECOSYSTEMS 

There are literally thousands of kinds of land-dwelling plants and animals, and 
the number of associations among them are numerous. For purposes of a survey of 
natural areas, characteristic groupings of some of the more common and conspicuous 
forms are referred to as communities in the themes below. 

Since the kind of community is intimately related to a kind of environment, it is 
necessary to look upon a group of organisms plus their environment as constituting a 
basic unit, and such a unit is commonly referred to by biologists as an ecosystem. 
The vegetative components of natural communities are generally more conspicuous 
than are the animal members and are more stable with respect to location and 
population density. Therefore, the name designations of land ecosystems stem from 
the types of vegetation which characterize them, but the animal populations and 
sometimes physical environmental features are often important elements in identifying 
and evaluating sites, as well as in shaping them. 

Theme 20. Tundra 

Tundra exists in a broad plain across the northernmost reaches of North 
America, with restricted occurrence on high mountains farther south. Tundra is 
a treeless area on which the principal vegetation consists of grasses, sedges, 
perennial herbs, and dwarf shrubs. Terrain is often poorly drained and climate 
alternates between a continuously cold, long harsh winter and a very short, cool 
to cold summer. Arctic tundra often is underlain by permanently frozen ground 
called permafrost. Associated with the permafrost are such tundra peculiarities 
as solifluction (a flowing of soil downslope), soil polygons, and frost boils. 
Alaskan tundra may be subdivided into three broad types: wet meadow tundra, 
shrub/tussock tundra, and alpine tundra. Wet meadow tundra, composed 

22 



largely of grasses, sedges, forbs, mosses, and lichens, occurs chiefly in wet 
areas of the coastal plains. Shrub/tussock tundra, characterized by tussock 
cotton-grass and ericaceous shrubs, occurs primarily in the piedmont and drier 
areas of the coastal plains. Alpine tundra, with a diversity of species and much 
bare ground, occurs at high elevations. Characteristic animals of Alaskan 
tundra are arctic fox, arctic hare, caribou, and lemming. 

Alpine tundra also is found farther south in the Rocky Mountains, Sierra- 
Cascade ranges, and northern parts of the Appalachian chain. Here, many 
species of plants are closely related to the arctic tundra species but the 
mammals characteristic of arctic tundra are lacking. Among the common 
mammals are hoary marmot, bighorn sheep, and pika. 

Theme 21. Boreal forest 

Just south of the tundra is a belt of forest stretching from western Alaska 
eastward to the Atlantic coast in Labrador, Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia. 
Two principal trees characterize this forest: white spruce and paper birch. In 
the eastern half, balsam fir and jack pine are also characteristic. There is an 
extension of the northern forest southward along the Appalachian highlands to 
North Carolina and Tennessee. Here, white spruce is replaced by red spruce, 
paper birch is replaced by yellow birch and, in North Carolina and Tennessee, 
balsam fir is replaced by the closely related Fraser fir. White spruce and red 
spruce overlap in northern New England and the Maritime Provinces. 

A corresponding southward extension along the Rockies is characterized by 
sub-alpine fir and Engelmann spruce, and another extension in the Cascades 
and Sierra Nevada is typified by red and silver fir. 

The climate of the boreal forest is scarcely less severe than the tundra, but 
summers are longer, and precipitation somewhat greater. Paper birch, aspen, 
jack pine, lodgepole pine, red pine, and white pine are very common 
successional species in the boreal forest, and may last many years as distinct 
communities of utmost beauty and value. Among the animals, woodland 
caribou, moose, snowshoe hare, gray wolf, red fox, red squirrel, marten, 
wolverine, lynx, and several species of grouse and thrush are common. 

Theme 22. Pacific forest 

Bordering the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to northern California is a region of 
mild temperatures and moderate to heavy precipitation. The region extends 
from the coast inland to include (with the exception of the Central Valley and 
southern fifth of California) the seaward slopes of the Cascade and Sierra 
Nevada ranges. The essentially mountainous terrain of much of this region 
produces altitudinal zones that vary in climate and in the resulting plant and 
animal life. On the highest peaks there are perpetual fields of ice and snow; 
below the tundra are boreal forests of this theme, consisting of such species as 
white fir, giant sequoia, Douglas-fir, and sugar pine. The forests at low altitudes 
along the coast consist mainly of coniferous trees such as western arborvitae, 

23 



Douglas-fir, western hemlock, redwood, and Sitka spruce. Northward from the 
Olympic Peninsula, hemlock and Sitka spruce dominate. Southward from the 
Olympic Peninsula, Douglas-fir and redwood become increasingly dominant. 

Animals common in this community include black bear, mule deer, coyote, 
cougar, raccoon, mountain beaver, golden-mantled ground squirrel, chickaree, 
and several species of chipmunks. 

Theme 23. Dry coniferous forest 

On the lower slopes of the Rocky Mountains and the eastern slopes of the 
Cascade-Sierra system there occur belts of coniferous forest and woodland 
dominated by Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, and pinyon-juniper. The climate 
here is warmer but drier than that of the boreal (or subalpine) forest above, with 
drought setting the lower limits of elevation where these dry forests give way to 
steppe or chaparral. Deer, black bear, porcupine, coyote, chipmunks, magpie, 
Steller's jay, and pigmy nuthatch are common animals. 

Theme 24. Eastern deciduous forest 

From a central area in the southern Appalachian highlands, mainly winter- 
deciduous tree species spread in all directions-northward to the Great Lakes 
area, westward through the first tier of states west of the Mississippi River, 
southward to the Gulf of Mexico, and eastward to the Atlantic Coast. Oaks, 
hickories, maples, buckeye, basswood, tuliptree, hemlock, beech, and other 
hardwood species combine in various ways to form several distinctive 
groupings: oak forest, beech-maple forest, northern hardwoods, mixed 
mesophytic forest, and southern mixed forest. Extensive pine forests mark 
areas in the Southeast where frequent burning prevents the growth of broad- 
leaved trees and maintains more desirable timber, forage, and game. 

Climate in this region is characterized by moderate-to-cold winters and hot 
summers. Precipitation varies from about 30 to over 50 inches annually. The 
most northern portions may have continuous snow cover throughout the winter, 
but snow is rare in the southern portion. White-tailed deer, raccoon, fox, 
thrushes, warblers, and the copperhead snake are common animals. Formerly, 
bison, cougar, and gray wolf ranged through much of the area. 

Theme 25. Grassland (steppe) 

Grassland is the most extensive formation in North America, extending 
westward from the edge of the eastern deciduous forests and covering the 
lowlands about the foothills of the Rocky Mountains to the Sierra-Cascades and 
from southern Saskatchewan and British Columbia to southern Texas. 
Throughout the formation, the rainfall is so low that the soil regularly dries out 
and the grasses become dormant each year. Total annual precipitation ranges 
from between 30 and 40 inches in the east to about 7 inches just east of the 
Cascades. In the north, winters are long and very cold but, in the south, winter 
temperatures seldom drop much below freezing. 



24 



Because there are large differences of climate within the grassland formation, 
ihere are corresponding differences in the vegetation. Along the eastern border 
of the formation, where precipitation is greatest, "tall-grass prairie" is the major 
vegetation type. Some of the dominant grasses are Stipa spartea, Bouteloua 
gracilis, B. curtipendula, Andropogon scoparius, A. gerardi, Panicum virgatum 
and Sorghastrum nutans. Composites and legumes are especially conspicuous 
among the broad-leaved herbs. Tall-grass prairie also dominates many sites 
formerly subject to regular burning in Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and 
Missouri, the combination of these sites often being referred to as the "prairie 
peninsula." 

In the western portions of the central plains, where precipitation is lower, are the 
"short-grass plains." Bouteloua gracilis and Buchloe are the major dominants in 
this area of short grasses. 

Between the Rockies and the Cascade-Sierra system, rainfall is mainly restricted 
to winter, rather than being concentrated in summer, as east of the Rockies, 
and the character of the steppe is correspondingly different. Characteristic 
grasses are Agropyron spicatum, Festuca idahoensis, and Oryzopsis 
hymenoides, and over most of the area there is a conspicuous overstory of 
shrubs, especially sagebrush or shadscale. Much of the interior valley of 
California originally supported grassland in which Stipa pulchra was the leading 
dominant. 

Bison, pronghom, elk, coyote, wolf, jackrabbit, kit fox, badger, ground squirrels, 
prairie dog, pocket gopher, prairie chicken, sage hen, and black-footed ferret 
are characteristic of grassland, but bison and elk are essentially restricted to the 
area of summer rainfall. 

Theme 26. Chaparral 

The dominant plants of chaparral are broad-leafed, mainly evergreen, species of 
shrubs or low trees, occurring as a dense scrub or woodland or in scattered 
arrangement with grass interspersed. 

Two subdivisions may be made: 

(1) Woodland— evergreen forest trees including several oaks, tanbark-oak, 
California-bay, madrone, chinquapin, and wax-myrtle. (2) Scrub— shrubs of 
many genera and species, the most important of which are manzanita, chamise, 
buckbrush, scrub oak, and mountain-mahogany. 

Theme 27. Deserts 

Deserts range from areas with no vegetation to areas with sparse, shrubby 
vegetation. Throughout the deserts, variations in soil texture, drainage, and 
salinity produce distinctive variations in vegetation. 

The North American desert is traditionally divided into four geographic sub- 
regions: Great Basin Desert, Mohave Desert, Sonoran Desert, and Chihuahuan 

25 



Desert. Sagebrush characterizes the Great Basin Desert, which has cold 
winters and warm summers. One common, simple community-type consisting 
mainly of an open stand of creosotebush occurs throughout the other three 
deserts, which have warm winters and hot summers. 

The Great Basin Desert occurs in much of the lower elevations between the 
Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada-Cascade ranges. Perennial grasses 
are an important component in the northern part of this desert. 

The Mohave Desert occupies much of inland southern California and adjacent 
Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Joshua-tree is the outstanding characteristic 
plant. 

The Sonoran Desert extends from southeastern California to the western edge 
of New Mexico. The species that characterize the Sonoran Desert are ocotillo 
and the cactuses, especially the saguaro, organpipe, and other conspicuous 
columnar species. 

The Chihuahuan Desert of eastern New Mexico and southwestern Texas is 
characterized by mesquite, ocotillo, yucca, agave, sotol, and nolina. 

Typical animals of the North American deserts include coyote, javelina, bobcat, 
bighorn, jackrabbit, pocket gopher, kangaroo rat, packrat, antelope ground 
squirrel, ring-tailed cat, rattlesnake, road-runner, raven, and numerous lizards. 

Theme 28. Tropical ecosystems 

Tropical areas are limited in the United States and possessions to Hawaii, 
American Samoa, and other Pacific islands; Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin 
Islands; and the southern tip of Florida, including the Florida Keys. 
Astronomically speaking, the "tropics" occur in that area bounded by the 
Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn; but oceanic influences on southern Florida 
result in a vegetation that is outstandingly tropical in its character despite its 
extra-tropical position. Due to the geographic dispersion of tropical lands 
belonging to the United States, the vegetation is highly differentiated, so this 
theme is complex in its constituent parts. 

Seasonal variation in the tropics is minimized by the fact that day length varies 
but little from 12 hours during all seasons, eliminating the long-winter-night, 
long-summer-day regime of temperate areas. On the other hand, wind patterns, 
continental position, and mountain ranges giving rise to rain-shadow 
phenomena do create seasonally wet-and-dry areas in the tropics as well as in 
temperate regions. Altitudinal variations also create vast differences in climate, 
vegetation, and attendant animal life. 



26 



Tropical formations of major importance are: 

A. Lowland rain forest-temperature more or less constant and warm with 
any tendency toward drought offset by a coincident season of lower 
temperature. 

B. Summer-deciduous forest--a forest with wet and dry periods alternating 
each year, and the trees, or many of them, leafless during the dry 
season. 

C. Woodland and scrub formation-found in areas of still more pronounced 
drought, with small-leaved shrubs and low trees among which legumes 
are conspicuous. 

D. Swamp and mangrove formations-forest or scrub growing where saline 
or fresh water covers the soil during at least part of the year. 

E. Savanna-grassland, usually with scattered trees, related to abnormal soil 
conditions or recurrent burning of summer-deciduous forest. 

F. Montane rain forest-evergreen forest of the cool, misty upper slopes of 
mountains, extending to upper tree line. 

G. Alpine vegetation-nonforest vegetation of areas on mountains where 
there is insufficient heat for forest growth, as on Hawaii. 

GROUP IV. AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS 

Collectively, aquatic plants and animals are at least as diverse as terrestrial forms. 
Although the concept of the ecosystem is equally applicable in the realm of aquatic 
biology, there are some difficulties in devising a classification of ecosystems that can 
be employed effectively in the survey and evaluation of natural areas. In part, these 
are the consequence of the philosophic problem of categorizing a very large number 
of essentially discontinuous fresh-water ecosystems. Further, although by no means 
unique to aquatic ecosystems, there is the practical problem of delineation of the 
ecosystem in terms of the area under consideration. For example, a lake as an 
ecosystem, in reality, should include the entire watershed and the plants and animals 
therein. The boundaries of a marine littoral ecosystem are even more difficult to 
delineate. Despite this type of difficulty, the concept of the ecosystem must 
nevertheless be applied vigorously in the evaluation of aquatic natural areas. A lake 
with an altered watershed is no longer natural, nor is a lagoon into which flows a 
polluted stream. 

The system of themes used here for aquatic ecosystems is based extensively, 
although not completely, on geomorphological and other physical aspects of the 
environments of the aquatic ecosystems. Such a classification has obvious internal 
inconsistencies including many partially overlapping themes. Bearing in mind, 

27 



however, that the function of the entire scheme is to provide the basis for the inclusion 
of adequate and representative samples from the entire spectrum of natural history, 
such overlapping, rather than being a matter of concern, is one of insurance with 
respect to attaining the objectives of the system. It is only to be recognized that the 
system of themes for aquatic ecosystems has a structure that differs philosophically 
from that of the themes from terrestrial ecosystems. 

Theme 29. Marine environments 

Among the purely marine environments that can be included in protected areas, 
it is, of course, extremely difficult to divorce geological from biological 
influences. This theme is based on important changes in the biological 
community associated with relatively minor changes in substrate or exposure to 
wave action. Most conceivable marine sites will fit within the following divisions 
of this theme: 

Exposed coastline and rocky substrate . A complex ecosystem characterized by 
maximum development of sessile animals and benthic algae (especially 
Postelsia). Wave action is severe; a splash zone is prominent; zonation is 
generally an obvious environmental feature. Examples: Cape Arego, Oregon; 
and possibly Point Loma at the entrance to San Diego Harbor, California. 

Exposed coastline with unconsolidated sediment. The animal community is 
simple, composed of organisms characterized by ability to burrow rapidly. 
Wave action, surf, tidal rips, and other water movements are severe. A plant 
community, at least in the ordinary sense, is nonexistent; the substrate consists 
of shifting sand or small pebbles. 

Coral reefs . Examples may be found in the U.S. Virgin Islands, Florida, Hawaii, 
American Samoa, and Guam. Exposure varies (i.e., windward and leeward 
sides). Reefs may be classified further into fringing, barrier, and atoll reefs. The 
biotic community is among the most complex known but also one of the best 
integrated (See also Group 1 , theme 1 1 .) 

Protected coastline with rocky substrate . Wave action is reduced in intensity. 
Zonation is often not very apparent. The splash zone may be reduced or 
absent. Examples: San Juan Island; many areas near Santa Barbara, 
California, including the Channel Islands. 

Protected coastline with unconsolidated sediment . Included here are areas of 
extensive sand flats characterized by soft-bodied burrowing animals. This 
theme may be difficult to separate from lagoons (below) except on the basis of 
currents and general degree of protection. Examples: Discovery Bay, 
Washington; Quincy Bay, Massachusetts. 

Lagoons . These are often extensive bodies of water completely protected from 
wave or current action. Organisms usually include eelgrass, Zostera, growing in 



28 



extensive submersed meadows, and also characteristic animals. Examples: 
Mission, California; Sarasota Bay, Florida. 

Tidal salt marshes . This is a type of community which has little diversity among 
plants and animals. Tidal salt marshes are often underlain by extensive salt- 
marsh peat; they are frequently characterized by endemic or specific mammal 
or bird populations. Examples: Spartina marshes, Sapelo Island, Georgia, 
Salicornia - Distichlis marshes, almost any bay in California. 

Mangrove swamps . To a great extent these are the tropical replacements of the 
salt marshes. They are dominated by woody plants usually with stilt roots or 
pneumatophores. They occur in quiet tidal waters. Examples: Everglades 
National Park; all high Caroline Islands (Trust Territories). 

Areas with extensive kelp beds . These are submarine forests with enormous 
brown algae in whose holdfasts live complex animal communities. Examples: 
much of the Pacific coast. 

Theme 30. Estuaries 

Estuarine ecosystems occupy the portion of rivers and/or arms of the sea 
between the head of tidal fluctuation and the open sea. They are characterized 
by marked gradients in salinity. The gradient in salinity and the tidal movements 
provide a series of habitats containing plants and animals that exemplify the 
transition from marine to fresh-water forms and from aquatic to terrestrial. 
Succession and the consequences of siltation are well illustrated. Relict forms 
may find in estuaries refuge from the forces of extinction. Isolation and partial 
isolation with their evolutionary consequences may be observed. In some 
cases, at least, this theme overlaps with, or is closely related to, lagoons, tidal 
salt marshes, and mangrove swamps in Theme 29, or deltas in Theme 33. 

Theme 31. Underground systems 

Caves and underground streams and lakes are the most common underground 
ecosystems. Unusual, endemic or rare species often occur here. Beetles, 
crayfish, millipedes, and amphipods are some examples of such fauna. Limited 
gene pools within a cave system has sometimes resulted in different rates of 
evolution. Thus, underground ecosystems can be important "evolutionary 
laboratories". Examples: Mammoth Cave National Park. 

Theme 32. Lakes and ponds 

A single lake may present many characteristics and may typify different kinds of 
biological and geological interaction. The following divisions are based 
extensively on the ways in which biological characteristics of a lake are 
influenced by a variety of physical factors in the environment, including geologic 
origin, location, climate, size (area and depth), and the chemical content of the 
water. 



29 



Large deep lakes . Large deep lakes are of interest and importance because 
of peculiar features with respect to stratification and restricted circulation, and 
because a relatively large fraction of the water mass is below the 
photosyntheic zone. Example: Lake Tahoe, Nevada. 

Large shallow lakes . In contrast to large deep lakes, these lakes tend to 
circulate more freely. Much more of the water is within the photosynthetic zone. 
Other factors being similar, such lakes are more productive. They are often 
major breeding sites for aquatic birds. Plant communities of the more eutrophic 
large lakes are characterized by an abundance and diversity of forms. 
Examples: Mille Lacs and the Red Lakes, Minnesota; Salton Sea, California. 
(Obviously there is a continuous spectrum between shallow and deep lakes.) 

Lakes of complex shape . A lake with complex shape, but with essentially 
uniform type of water, frequently presents excellent opportunities for 
observations of the effects on diverstiy and productivity, such as basin 
morphology, type of shore, and type of bottom. Included are lakes with multiple 
basins and systems of interconnected lakes. 

Crater lakes . Because of their origin, the morphology of their basins and the 
physical and chemical properties of their waters, many of these lakes tend to be 
extremely oligotrophic. They are usually isolated and have extremely small 
watersheds. Example: Crater Lake, Oregon. 

Kettle lakes and potholes . Such lakes vary considerably in trophic state. 
Frequently they support a varied and abundant aquatic vegetation and are 
attractive to species of birds that require isolated aquatic or semiaquatic 
breeding territories. 

Oxbow lakes . Attention should be given to the degree of trophic development 
and the rate of replacement by terrestrial communities. The more eutrophic 
oxbow lakes may be important breeding sites for waterfowl. 

Dune lakes . Again attention should be given to the rate of replacement by 
terrestrial communities. The interpretive value of such lakes is obvious. 

Sphaanum-bog lakes . Careful selection can give important illustrations about 
the evolution from aquatic communities to fens to bogs. 

Saline lakes . Saline lakes frequently contain unique communities of great 
interest and scientific value. They illustrate well the concept that the watershed 
is a part of the lake ecosystem. 

Lakes fed by thermal steams . See Thermal waters, Theme 33. 

Tundra lakes and ponds . These are, in reality, a part of the tundra ecosystem 
(Group III, Theme 20). It includes a large fraction of the breeding North 

30 



American geese and some other waterfowl. Low density is compensated by 
large total area. From the aspect of aquatic biology, the shallow nature of these 
bodies and the long winter freeze exert distinctive and interesting effects on the 
communities therein. 

Swamps and marshy areas . Properly selected examples will provide excellent 
illustrations of the evolution of aquatic communities. These areas support an 
abundance and diversity of animal life, including many interesting species of 
birds and other animals. (They may be permeated by streams, ponds, and 
puddles.) 

Sinkhole lakes . These are of importance and interest because of their origin 
from collapsed caves and because of previous or continuing association with 
underground stream systems. 

Unusually productive lakes . See Large shallow lakes, kettle lakes and pot- 
holes, and oxbow lakes. Example: Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. 

Lakes of low productivity and high clarity . See large deep lakes and crater 
lakes. Examples: Crater Lake, Oregon; many montane lakes in Colorado. 

Theme 33. Streams 

Flowing waters are powerful molders of the Earth's crust and diverse habitats 
for life. As in the case of lakes and ponds, the biologic characteristics of 
streams are determined extensively by the physical properties of the stream- 
bed and by the nature of the watershed. Streams are characterized within the 
following divisions of this theme: 

Rapidly flowing steams . These are of varying size and may have both gravel 
and rock bottoms. Such streams contain distinctive, specialized forms. 

Slow meandering steams . These also include streams of varying sizes. 
Obviously, there is a spectrum of types between slow and rapid streams. 

Deltas (both at seashore and at lakeshore) . Deltas are often of major 
importance as breeding areas for waterfowl and shore birds. (See also 
estuaries.) 

Springs . Especially important are springs in the desert or steppe, and those 
whose outflow disappears into the Earth without connection to other bodies of 
water. 

Thermal waters . These ecosystems contain organisms with unusual and 
biologically important thermal adaptations. Examples: springs and warm 
streams in Yellowstone and Mount Rainier National Parks. 



31 



THEMATIC REPRESENTATION: 


llf^ 


NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM 


pll 


NORTH PACIFIC BORDER 


Point Reyes NS 




Redwood National Park 


Landforms of the Present 




Mountain Systems 


Caves and Springs 


Muir Woods NM 


Golden Gate NRA 


Olympic National Park 


Muir Woods NM 


Oregon Caves NM 


Oregon Caves NM 


Redwood National Park 






Geologic History 


Works of Volcanism 


Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 


Olympic National Park 


Redwood National Park 


Point Reyes NS 






Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 


Sculpture of the Land 


Olympic National Park 


Golden Gate NRA 




Olympic National Park 


Oligocene-Recent Epochs 


Point Reyes NS 


Olympic National Park 


Redwood National Park 


Redwood National Park 


Eolian Landforms 


Land Ecosystems 


Point Reyes NS 


Tundra 




Olympic National Park 


River Systems and Lakes 




Golden Gate NRA 


Boreal Forest 


Olympic National Park 


Olympic National Park 


Point Reyes NS 




Redwood National Park 


Pacific Forest 




Golden Gate NRA 


Works of Glaciers 


Muir Woods NM 


Olympic National Park 


Olympic National Park 




Oregon Caves NM 


Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 


Point Reyes NS 


Golden Gate NRA 


Redwood National Park 


Olympic National Park 


San Juan Island NHP 





NHP = National Historical Park 
NHS = National Historic Site 
NMP = National Military Park 
NRA = National Recreation Area 
NSR = National Scenic Riverway(s) 



33 



* Not Represented 
NL = National Lakeshore 
NM = National Monument 
NS = National Seashore 
MP = Memorial Parkway 



Dry Coniferous Forest 
Golden Gate NRA 
Point Reyes NS 
Redwood National Park 
San Juan Island NHP 

Grassland 
Golden Gate NRA 
Redwood National Park 

*Chaparral 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Golden Gate NRA 
Olympic National Park 
Point Reyes NS 
Redwood National Park 

Estuaries 
Golden Gate NRA 
Point Reyes NS 
Redwood National Park 

Underground Systems 
Oregon Caves NM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Golden Gate NRA 
Olympic National Park 
Point Reyes NS 
Redwood National Park 

Streams 
Golden Gate NRA 
Muir Woods NM 
Olympic National Park 
Oregon Caves NM 
Point Reyes NS 
Redwood National Park 

SOUTH PACIFIC BORDER 

Landforms of the Present 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Santa Monica Mountains NRA 



Mountain Systems 
Channel Islands National Park 
Pinnacles NM 

Santa Monica Mountains NRA 
Whiskeytown-Shasta-TrinityNRA 

Works of Volcanism 
Cabrillo NM 

Channel Islands National Park 
Pinnacles NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Pinnacles NM 
Santa Monica Mountains NRA 

Eolian Landforms 
Channel Islands National Park 

River Systems and Lakes 
Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Santa Monica Mountains NRA 
Whiskeytown-Shasta-TrinityNRA 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Cabrillo NM 

Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Santa Monica Mountains NRA 
Whiskeytown-Shasta-TrinityNRA 

Caves and Springs 
Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Pinnacles NM 
Santa Monica Mountains NRA 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Pacific Forest 
Golden Gate NRA 



34 



Dry Coniferous Forest 
Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Pinnacles NM 

Santa Monica Mountains NRA 
Whiskeytown-Shasta- TrinityNRA 

Grassland 
Cabrillo NM 

Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Pinnacles NM 

Chaparral 
Pinnacles NM 

Santa Monica Mountains NRA 
Whiskeytown-Shasta-TrinityNRA 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Cabrillo NM 

Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Santa Monica Mountains NRA 

Estuaries 
Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Santa Monica Mountains NRA 

Underground Systems 
Pinnacles NM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Golden Gate NRA 
Pinnacles NM 
Whiskeytown-Shasta-TrinityNRA 

Streams 
Channel Islands National Park 
Golden Gate NRA 
Pinnacles NM 

Santa Monica Mountains NRA 
Whiskeytown-Shasta- TrinityNRA 



CASCADE RANGE 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Works of Volcanism 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 

Sculpture of the Land 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascade NPS Service Complex 

River Systems and Lakes 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Works of Glaciers 
Crater Lake National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 

Caves and Springs 
Crater Lake National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 



35 



Geologic History 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Crater Lake National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Boreal Forest 
Crater Lake National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 

Pacific Forest 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Grassland 
North Cascades National Park 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 

Streams 
Crater Lake National Park 
Lassen Volcanic National Park 
Mount Rainier National Park 
North Cascades National Park 



SIERRA NEVADA 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Devils Postpile NM 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Works of Volcanism 
Devils Postpile NM 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Kings Canyon National Park 

Sculpture of the Land 
Devils Postpile NM 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

River Systems and Lakes 
Devils Postpile NM 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Works of Glaciers 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Caves and Springs 
Devils Postpile NM 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 

Geologic History 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Kings Canyon National Park 



36 



Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Kings Canyon National Park 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Devils Postpile NM 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Boreal Forest 
Devils Postpile NM 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Pacific Forest 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Chaparral 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 

Lakes and Ponds 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 

Streams 
Devils Postpile NM 
Kings Canyon National Park 
Sequoia National Park 
Yosemite National Park 



COLUMBIA PLATEAU 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

Works of Volcanism 
Craters of the Moon NM 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

*Works of Glaciers 

Caves and Springs 
Craters of the Moon NM 

Geologic History 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

Paleocene-Eocene 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

Oligocene - Recent Epochs 
Craters of the Moon NM 
Hagerman Fossil Beds NM 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

Grassland 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

Deserts 
Craters of the Moon NM 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 



37 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Lakes and Ponds 

Streams 
John Day Fossil Beds NM 

GREAT BASIN 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Golden Spike NHS 

Mountain Systems 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 

Works of Volcanism 
Death Valley NM 
Lava Beds NM 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Death Valley NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
Death Valley NM 
Lava Beds NM 
Great Basin National Park 

Eolian Landforms 
Death Valley NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Great Basin National Park 

Works of Glaciers 
Great Basin National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Great Basin National Park 

Caves and Springs 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 



Geologic History 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Death Valley NM 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Death Valley NM 
Lava Beds NM 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Death Valley NM 
Lava Beds NM 

Oligocene - Recent Epochs 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 

Boreal Forest 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 

Deserts 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 



38 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 

Streams 
Death Valley NM 
Great Basin National Park 
Lava Beds NM 

MOHAVE-SONORAN DESERT 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Casa Grande NM 
Hohokam Pima NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Montezuma Castle NM 
Tumacacori NM 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 

Mountain Systems 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Organ Pipe Cactus NM 
Saguaro NM 
Tonto NM 

Works of Volcanism 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Tonto NM 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Death Valley NM 
Lake Mead NRA 



Sculpture of the Land 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Montezuma Castle NM 
Organ Pipe Cactus NM 
Saguaro NM 
Tonto NM 

Eolian Landforms 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Lake Mead NRA 
Montezuma Castle NM 
TuzigootNM 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Lake Mead NRA 

Caves and Springs 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Montezuma Castle NM 
Organ Pipe Cactus NM 
Saguaro NM 
Tonto NM 

Geologic History 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Death Valley NM 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Death Valley NM 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Death Valley NM 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Death Valley NM 



39 



Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Death Valley NM 

Boreal Forest 
Death Valley NM 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Death Valley NM 
Montezuma Castle NM 
Saguaro NM 

Grassland 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 

Chaparral 
Joshua Tree NM 
Saguaro NM 

Deserts 
Casa Grande NM 
Death Valley NM 
Hohokam Pima NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Organ Pipe Cactus NM 
Saguaro NM 
Tonto NM 
Tumacacori NM 
Tuzigoot NM 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Death Valley NM 
Joshua Tree NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Montezuma Castle NM 
Organ Pipe Cactus NM 



Streams 
Death Valley NM 
Lake Mead NRA 
Montezuma Castle NM 
Organ Pipe Cactus NM 
Saguaro NM 
Tonto NM 
Tuzigoot NM 

CHIHUAHUAN DESERT-MEXICAN 
HIGHLAND 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Big Bend National Park 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 
Salinas Pueblo Missions NM 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Big Bend National Park 
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 

Mountain Systems 
Big Bend National Park 
Chiricahua NM 
Coronado National Memorial 
Fort Bowie NHS 
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 

Works of Volcanism 
Big Bend National Park 
Chiricahua NM 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Big Bend National Park 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 

Sculpture of the Land 
Big Bend National Park 
Chamizal National Memorial 
Chiricahua NM 
Fort Davis NHS 
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 



40 



Salinas Pueblo Mission NM 
White Sands NM 

Eolian Landforms 
Big Bend National Park 
Chamizal NM 
White Sands NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Big Bend National Park 
Chamizal National Memorial 
Fort Davis NHS 
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 
Salinas Pueblo Mission NM 
White Sands NM 

Caves and Springs 
Big Bend National Park 
Chiricahua NM 
Coronado National Memorial 
Fort Bowie NHS 
Fort Davis NHS 

Guadalupe Mountains National Park 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 
White Sands NM 

Geologic History 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Big Bend National Park 
Fort Davis NHS 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 
Salinas Pueblo Mission NM 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Chamizal National Memorial 
White Sands NM 



Land Ecosystems 

* Boreal Forest 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Big Bend National Park 
Chiricahua NM 
Coronado National Memorial 
Fort Bowie NHS 
Fort Davis NHS 
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 
Salinas Pueblo Mission NM 

Grassland 
Chiricahua NM 
Coronado National Memorial 
Fort Bowie NHS 

Guadalupe Mountains National Park 
White Sands NM 

Deserts 
Big Bend National Park 
Chiricahua NM 
Coronado National Memorial 
Fort Bowie NHS 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Big Bend National Park 
Coronado National Memorial 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 

Lakes and Ponds 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 
White Sands NM 

Streams 
Big Bend National Park 
Chamizal National Memorial 
Chiricahua NM 
Coronado National Memorial 
Fort Davis NHS 
Fort Davis NHS 
Gila Cliff Dwellings NM 
Guadalupe Mountains National Park 
Rio Grande Wild and Scenic River 



41 



Salinas Pueblo Mission NM 
White Sands NM 

COLORADO PLATEAU 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Arches National Park 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Canyonlands National Park 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Cedar Breaks NM 
Chaco Culture NHP 
Colorado NM 
El Morro NM 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Grand Canyon National Park 
HovenweepNM 
Mesa Verde National Park 
Natural Bridges NM 
Navajo NM 

Petrified Forest National Park 
Walnut Canyon NM 
WupatkiNM 
Yucca House NM 
lion National Park 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Arches National Park 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Navajo NM 

Mountain Systems 
Arches National Park 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Colorado NM 

Grand Canyon National Park 
Sunset Crater NM 

Works of Volcanism 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Sunset Crater NM 
Walnut Canyon NM 



WupatkiNM 
lion National Park 

Sculpture of the Land 
Arches National Park 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Canyonlands National Park 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Cedar Breaks NM 
Chaco Culture NHP 
Colorado NM 
El Morro NM 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Mesa Verde National Park 
Natural Bridges NM 
Navajo NM 

Petrified Forest National Park 
Rainbow Bridge NM 
Sunset Crater NM 
Walnut Canyon NM 
WupatkiNM 
lion National Park 

Eolian Landforms 
Arches National Park 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Chaco Culture NHP 
WupatkiNM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Arches National Park 
Aztec Ruins NM 

Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Canyonlands National Park 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Chaco Culture NHP 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Hubbell Trading Post NHS 
Rainbow Bridge NM 
Walnut Canyon NM 



42 



WupatkiNM 
lion National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Rainbow Bridge NM 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Grand Canyon National Park 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Grand Canyon National Park 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Natural Bridges NM 
Pipe Spring NM 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Mesa Verde National Park 
Navajo NM 
Rainbow Bridge NM 
lion National Park 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Arches National Park 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyonlands National Park 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Colorado NM 
El Mono NM 
Glen Canyon NRA 
HovenweepNM 
Petrified Forest National Park 
Rainbow Bridge NM 
Yucca House NM 
lion National Park 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Arches National Park 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyonlands National Park 



Cedar Breaks NM 
Chaco Culture NHP 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Petrified Forest National Park 
WupatkiNM 

Oligocene - Recent Epochs 
Aztec Ruins NM 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyonlands National Park 
Cedar Breaks NM 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Hubbell Trading Post NHS 
Natural Bridges NM 
Petrified Forest National Park 
Rainbow Bridge NM 
Sunset Crater NM 
WupatkiNM 
lion National Park 



Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 



Boreal Forest 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Grand Canyon National Park 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Arches National Park 
Aztec Ruins NM 

Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Canyonlands National Park 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Cedar Breaks NM 
Chaco Culture NHP 
Colorado NM 
El Morro NM 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Grand Canyon National Park 
HovenweepNM 
Hubbell Trading Post NHS 
Mesa Verde National Park 
Natural Bridges NM 
Navajo NM 



43 



Petrified Forest National Park 
Sunset Crater NM 
Walnut Canyon NM 
WupatkiNM 
lion National Park 

Grassland 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Sunset Crater NM 
Walnut Canyon NM 

Deserts 
Arches National Park 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Bryce Canyon National Park 
Canyon de Chelly NM 
Canyonlands National Park 
Capitol Reef National Park 
Colorado NM 
El Morro NM 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Hovenweep NM 
Hubbell Trading Post NHS 
Mesa Verde National Park 
Natural Bridges NM 
Navajo NM 
Sunset Crater NM 
Walnut Canyon NM 
WupatkiNM 
lion National Park 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Grand Canyon National Park 
Sunset Crater NM 
WupatkiNM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Aztec Ruins NM 
Glen Canyon NRA 
Rainbow Bridge NM 

Streams 
Arches National Park 
Aztec Ruins NM 



Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 

Bryce Canyon National Park 

Canyon de Chelly NM 

Canyonlands National Park 

Capitol Reef National Park 

Cedar Breaks NM 

Chaco Culture NHP 

El Morro NM 

Glen Canyon NRA 

Grand Canyon National Park 

Hubbell Trading Post NHS 

Navajo NM 

Petrified Forest National Park 

Rainbow Bridge NM 

Walnut Canyon NM 

WupatkiNM 

lion National Park 

NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Grant-Kohrs Ranch NHS 

Mountain Systems 
Glacier National Park 

Sculpture of the Land 

Big Hole National Battlefield 
Glacier National Park 

River Systems and Lakes 
Big Hole National Battlefield 
Glacier National Park 

Works of Glaciers 
Big Hole National Battlefield 
Glacier National Park 

Caves and Springs 
Big Hole National Battlefield 
Glacier National Park 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 



44 



Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Big Hole National Battlefield 
Glacier National Park 

Boreal Forest 
Glacier National Park 
Grant-Kohrs Ranch NHS 

Pacific Forest 
Glacier National Park 

Grassland 
Grant-Kohrs Ranch NHS 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Glacier National Park 

Streams 
Glacier National Park 
Grant-Kohrs Ranch NHS 

MIDDLE ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Dinosaur NM 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Dinosaur NM 

Mountain Systems 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Dinosaur NM 

Grand Teton National Park 
John D. Rockefeller Jr. MP 
Yellowstone National Park 

Works of Volcanism 
Yellowstone National Park 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Grand Teton National Park 
John D. Rockefeller Jr. MP 
Yellowstone National Park 



Sculpture of the Land 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Dinosaur NM 
Fossil Butte NM 
Grand Teton National Park 
Yellowstone National Park 

River Systems and Lakes 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Dinosaur NM 

Grand Teton National Park 
John D. Rockefeller, Jr. MP 
Yellowstone National Park 

Works of Glaciers 
Grand Teton National Park 
Yellowstone National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Grand Teton National Park 
Yellowstone National Park 

Caves and Springs 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Dinosaur NM 
Fossil Butte NM 
Grand Teton National Park 
John D. Rockefeller Jr. MP 
Timpanogos Cave NM 
Yellowstone National Park 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Dinosaur NM 

Grand Teton National Park 
Yellowstone National Park 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Dinosaur NM 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Dinosaur NM 
Timpanogos Cave NM 
Yellowstone National Park 



45 



Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Dinosaur NM 
Yellowstone National Park 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Fossil Butte NM 
Grand Teton National Park 
Yellowstone National Park 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Dinosaur NM 
Fossil Butte NM 
Grand Teton National Park 
Yellowstone National Park 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Grand Teton National Park 
Yellowstone National Park 

Boreal Forest 
Grand Teton National Park 
John D. Rockefeller Jr. MP 
Yellowstone National Park 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Dinosaur NM 

Grand Teton National Park 
John D. Rockefeller Jr. MP 

Grassland 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 

Deserts 
Dinosaur NM 
Fossil Butte NM 
Timpanogos Cave NM 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Timpanogos Cave NM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Grand Teton National Park 



John D. Rockefeller Jr. MP 
Yellowstone National Park 

Streams 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Dinosaur NM 
Fossil Butte NM 
Grand Teton National Park 
John D. Rockefeller Jr. MP 
Timpanogos Cave NM 
Yellowstone National Park 

WYOMING BASIN 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Dinosaur NM 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Dinosaur NM 

Mountain Systems 
Dinosaur NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
Dinosaur NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Dinosaur NM 

Caves and Springs 
Dinosaur NM 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Dinosaur NM 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Dinosaur NM 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Dinosaur NM 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Dinosaur NM 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 



46 



Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Dinosaur NM 

Land Ecosystems 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Dinosaur NM 

*Grassland 

Deserts 
Dinosaur NM 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Lakes and Ponds 

Streams 
Dinosaur NM 

SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 

Mountain Systems 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM 
Great Sand Dunes NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

*Works of Volcanism 

Sculpture of the Land 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Eolian Landforms 
Great Sand Dunes NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 



Works of Glaciers 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Curecanti NRA 

Caves and Springs 
Curecanti NRA 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Curecanti NRA 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM 
Great Sand Dunes NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Boreal Forest 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Great Sand Dunes NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Grassland 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Florissant Fossil Beds NM 
Great Sand Dunes NM 

Deserts 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 



47 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Lakes and Ponds 
Curecanti NRA 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

Streams 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison NM 
Curecanti NRA 
Great Sand Dunes NM 
Rocky Mountain National Park 

GREAT PLAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Agate Fossil Beds NM 
Amistad Recreation Area 
Badlands National Park 
Bents Old Fort NHS 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Custer Battlefield NM 
Devils Tower NM 
Fort Union NM 
Fort Laramie NHS 
Fort Union Trading Post NHS 
Fort Lamed NHS 
Knife River Indian Villages NHS 
Lake Meredith Recreation Area 
Theodore Roosevelt National Park 
Wind Cave National Park 

*Cuestas and Hogbacks 

Mountain Systems 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Capulin Volcano NM 
Mount Rushmore National Memorial 

Works of Volcanism 
Capulin Volcano NM 
Devils Tower NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
Alibates Flint Quarries NM 



Amistad Recreation Area 

Badlands National Park 

Bighorn Canyon NRA 

Capulin Volcano NM 

Carlsbad Caverns National Park 

Devils Tower NM 

Fort Union NM 

Lake Meredith Recreation Area 

Lyndon B. Johnson NHP 

Scotts Bluff NM 

Theodore Roosevelt National Park 

Eolian Landforms 
Amistad Recreation Area 
Fort Union NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Amistad Recreation Area 
Badlands National Park 
Bents Old Fort NHS 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Devils Tower NM 
Fort Union NM 
Fort Union NM 
Fort Union Trading Post NHS 
Fort Union Trading Post NHS 
Fort Laramie NHS 
Lake Meredith Recreation Area 
Lyndon B. Johnson NHP 
Scotts Bluff NM 
Theodore Roosevelt National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Lake Meredith Recreation Area 

Caves and Springs 
Badlands National Park 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Capulin Volcano NM 
Carlsbad Caverns National Park 
Devils Tower NM 
Fort Union NM 
Jewel Cave NM 
Wind Cave National Park 



48 



Geologic History 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Alibates Flint Quarries NM 
Am istad Recreation Area 
Carlsbad Caverns National Park 
Jewel Cave NM 
Lake Meredith Recreation Area 
Mount Rushmore National Memorial 
Wind Cave National Park 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Custer Battlefield NM 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Devils Tower NM 
Capulin Volcano NM 
Fort Union NM 
Lyndon B. Johnson NHP 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Agate Fossil Beds NM 
Badlands National Park 
Scotts Bluff NM 
Theodore Roosevelt National Park 

Land Ecosystems 

* Boreal Forest 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Capulin Volcano NM 
Devils Tower NM 
Fort Union NM 
Jewel Cave NM 
Lyndon B. Johnson NHP 
Mount Rushmore National Memorial 
Scotts Bluff NM 
Wind Cave National Park 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Fort Lamed NHS 
Lake Meredith Recreation Area 

Grassland 
Agate Fossil Beds NM 
Badlands National Park 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 



Capulin Volcano NM 

Custer Battlefield NM 

Devils Tower NM 

Fort Union NM 

Fort Union Trading Post NHS 

Fort Lamed NHS 

Jewel Cave NM 

Lyndon B. Johnson NHP 

Mount Rushmore National Memorial 

Theodore Roosevelt National Park 

Wind Cave National Park 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Carlsbad Caverns National Park 
Jewel Cave NM 
Wind Cave National Park 

Lakes and Ponds 
Amistad Recreation Area 
Fort Union Trading Post NHS 
Lake Meredith Recreation Area 

Streams 
Agate Fossil Beds NM 
Amistad Recreation Area 
Badlands National Park 
Bents Old Fort NHS 
Bighorn Canyon NRA 
Carlsbad Caverns National Park 
Devils Tower NM 
Fort Laramie NHS 
Fort Union NM 
Fort Union Trading Post NHS 
Knife River Indian Villages NHS 
Lake Meredith Recreation Area 
Lyndon B. Johnson NHP 
Mount Rushmore National Memorial 
Scotts Bluff NM 

Theodore Roosevelt National Park 
Wind Cave National Park 



49 



CENTRAL LOWLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Fort Scott NHS 
Homestead NM of America 
Lincoln Home NHS 
Pipestone NM 

*Cuestas and Hogbacks 

Sculpture of the Land 
Chickasaw NRA 
Pictured Rocks NL 

Eolian Landforms 
Indiana Dunes NL 
Pictured Rocks NL 
Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 

River Systems and Lakes 
Chickasaw NRA 

Ice Age National Scientific Reserve 
Indiana Dunes NL 

Works of Glaciers 
Ice Age National Scientific Reserve 
Indiana Dunes NL 
Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Chickasaw NRA 
Indiana Dunes NL 
Pictured Rocks NL 
Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 

Caves and Springs 
Chickasaw NRA 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Pictured Rocks NL 
Pipestone NM 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Effigy Mounds NM 



*Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Chickasaw NRA 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Homestead NM of America 
Indiana Dunes NL 
Pictured Rocks NL 
Pipestone NM 
Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 

Land Ecosystems 

Boreal Forest 
Pictured Rocks NL 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Chickasaw NRA 
Effigy Mounds NM 
Indiana Dunes NL 
Lincoln Home NHS 
Pictured Rocks NL 
Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 

Grassland 
Fort Scott NHS 
Herbert Hoover NHS 
Homestead NM of America 
Indiana Dunes NL 
Pipestone NM 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Chickasaw NRA 
Indiana Dunes NL 
Pictured Rocks NL 
Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 

Streams 
Lincoln Home NHS 
Pictured Rocks NL 
Pipestone NM 
Sleeping Bear Dunes NL 



50 



SUPERIOR UPLANDS 

Landforms of The Present 

River Systems and Lakes 
Grand Portage NM 
Isle Royale National Park 
Lower Saint Croix NSR 
Saint Croix NSR 
Voyageurs National Park 

Works of Glaciers 
Apostle Islands NL 
Grand Portage NM 
Isle Royale National Park 
Lower Saint Croix NSR 
Saint Croix NSR 
Voyageurs National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Apostle Islands NL 
Grand Portage NM 
Isle Royale National Park 
Voyageurs National Park 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Apostle Islands NL 
Grand Portage NM 
Isle Royale National Park 
Saint Croix NSR 
Voyageurs National Park 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Lower Saint Croix NSR 
Saint Croix NSR 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Apostle Islands NL 
Grand Portage NM 
isle Royale National Park 
Saint Croix NSR 
Voyageurs National Park 

Land Ecosystems 

Boreal Forest 
Apostle Islands NL 
Grand Portage NM 



Isle Royale National Park 
Voyageurs National park 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Apostle Islands NL 
Isle Royale National Park 
Lower Saint Croix NSR 
Saint Croix NSR 

Grassland 
Lower Saint Croix NSR 
Saint Croix NSR 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Apostle Islands NL 
Grand Portage NM 
Isle Royale National Park 
Voyageurs National Park 

Streams 
Apostle Islands NL 
Grand Portage NM 
Isle Royale National Park 
Lower Saint Croix NSR 
Saint Croix NSR 
Voyageurs National Park 

INTERIOR HIGHLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
George Washington Carver NM 
Ozark NSRs 

Wilson's Creek National Battlefield 
Pea Ridge NMP 

Mountain Systems 
Buffalo National River 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Hot Springs National Park 

Sculpture of the Land 
Buffalo National River 
Hot Springs National Park 
Pea Ridge NMP 



51 



River Systems and Lakes 
Buffalo National River 
Fort Smith NHS 
Ozark NSRs 

Caves and Springs 
Buffalo National River 
Hot Springs National Park 
Ozark NSRs 
Pea Ridge NMP 

Geologic History 

*Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Hot Springs National Park 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Buffalo National River 
Pea Ridge NMP 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Fort Smith NHS 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Buffalo National River 
George Washington Carver NM 
Hot Springs National Park 
Ozark NSRs 
Pea Ridge NMP 
Wilson's Creek National Battlefield 

Grassland 
George Washington Carver NM 
Wilson's Creek National Battlefield 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Buffalo National River 
Ozark NSRs 

Lakes and Ponds 
Ozark NSRs 

Streams 
Buffalo National River 



Fort Smith NHS 

Hot Springs National Park 

Ozark NSRs 

Pea Ridge NMP 

Wilson's Creek National Battlefield 

INTERIOR LOW PLATEAUS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Fort Donelson National Battlefield 
Natchez Trace Parkway 
Stones River National Battlefield 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Caves and Springs 
Mammoth Cave National Park 

Geologic History 

*Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 

*Mississippian-Permian Periods 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Abraham Lincoln Birthplace NHS 
Fort Donelson National Battlefield 
Mammoth Cave National Park 
Natchez Trace Parkway 
Stones River National Battlefield 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Mammoth Cave National Park 

Streams 
Fort Donelson National Battlefield 
Mammoth Cave National Park 
Natchez Trace Parkway 
Stones River National Battlefield 

APPALACHIAN PLATEAUS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 



52 



Fort Necessity National Battlefield 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 
Russell Cave NM 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 

Mountain Systems 
Big South Fork National River and 

Recreation Area 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
New River Gorge National River 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 

Recreational River 

Sculpture of the Land 
Big South Fork National River and 

Recreation Area 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
New River Gorge National River 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 

Recreational River 

River Systems and Lakes 
Big South Fork National River and 

Recreation Area 
Cuyahoga Valley NRA 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Johnstown Flood National Memorial 
New River Gorge National River 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 

Recreational River 

Works of Glaciers 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 



Caves and Springs 
Big South Fork National River and 

Recreation Area 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
New River Gorge National River 
Russell Cave NM 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 

Recreational River 

Geologic History 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Cuyahoga Valley NRA 
Cuyahoga Valley NRA 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Big South Fork National River and 

Recreation Area 
Cuyahoga Valley NRA 
Fort Necessity National Battlefield 
Friendship Hill NHS 
New River Gorge National River 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Friendship Hill NHS 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Big South Fork National River and 

Recreation Area 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Cuyahoga Valley NRA 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Fort Necessity National Battlefield 
Friendship Hill NHS 
Johnstown Flood National Memorial 
New River Gorge National River 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 



53 



Russell Cave NM 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Russell Cave NM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Streams 
Big South Fork National River and 

Recreation Area 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Cuyahoga Valley NRA 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Fort Necessity National Battlefield 
Johnstown Flood National Memorial 
New River Gorge National River 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 
Russell Cave NM 

APPALACHIAN RANGES 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Blue Ridge Parkway 
Carl Sandburg Home NHS 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga NMP 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
Harpers Ferry NHP 
Obed Wild and Scenic river 
Shenandoah National Park 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Sculpture of the Land 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 



Cumberland Gap NHP 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Eolian Landforms 
Saratoga NHP 

River Systems and Lakes 
Antietam National Battlefield 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
Harpers Ferry NHP 
Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt NHS 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Works of Glaciers 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Caves and Springs 
Antietam National Battlefield 
Catoctin Mountain park 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
Harpers Ferry NHP 
Shenandoah National Park 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Shenandoah National Park 



54 



Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Antietam National Battlefield 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Harpers Ferry NHP 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Shenandoah National Park 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Shenandoah National Park 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Mississippian - Permian Periods 
Shenandoah National Park 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt NHS 
Saratoga NHP 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Land Ecosystems 

Boreal Forest 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Antietam National Battlefield 
Blue Ridge Parkway 
Carl Sandburg Home NHS 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga NMP 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 



Harpers Ferry NHP 
Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt NHS 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 
Saratoga NHP 
Shenandoah National Park 
Vanderbilt Mansion NHS 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Vanderbilt Mansion NHS 

Lakes and Ponds 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt NHS 
Saratoga NHP 
Shenandoah National Park 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 

Streams 
Antietam National Battlefield 
Blue Ridge Parkway 
Carl Sandburg Home NHS 
Catoctin Mountain Park 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Chickamauga and Chattanooga NMP 
Cumberland Gap NHP 
Delaware Water Gap NRA 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park 
Harpers Ferry NHP 
Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt NHS 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Obed Wild and Scenic River 
Saratoga NHP 
Shenandoah National Park 
Upper Delaware Scenic and 
Recreational River 



55 



PIEDMONT 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Chattahoochee River NRA 
Cowpens National Battlefield 
Guilford Courthouse NMP 
Horseshoe Bend NMP 
Kings Mountain NMP 
Ninety-SixNHS 
Ocmulgee NM 

Works of Volcanism 
George Washington MP 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
National Capital Parks 

Sculpture of the Land 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 
National Capital Parks 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 

River Systems and Lakes 
Chattahoochee River NRA 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 
National Capital Parks 
Manassas National Battlefield Park 
Monocacy National Battlefield 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 

Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing 
Arts 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 

Caves and Springs 
National Capital Parks 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 
National Capital Parks 



Manassas National Battlefield Park 
National Capital Parks 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Valley Forge NHP 
National Capital Parks 
Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing 
Arts 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 
National Capital Parks 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
National Capital Parks 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Monocacy National Battlefield 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Valley Forge NHP 

Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing 
Arts 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 
Rock Creek Park 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 
Gettysburg NMP 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Manassas National Battlefield Park 
Valley Forge NHP 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Prince William Forest Park 



56 



Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
AppomattoxCourt House NHP 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 
National Capital Parks 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 

Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing 
Arts 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Booker T. Washington NM 
Chattahoochee River NRA 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Cowpens National Battlefield 
Eisenhower NHS 
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania 

County Battlefields Memorial NMP 
George Washington MP 
Gettysburg NMP 
National Capital Parks 
Guilford Courthouse NMP 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Horseshoe Bend NMP 
Kennesaw Mountain National 

Battlefield Park 
Kings Mountain NMP 
Manassas National Battlefield Park 
Monocacy National Battlefield 
Ninety-Six NHS 
Ocmulgee NM 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
Valley Forge NHP 
National Capital Parks 
Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing 

Arts 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Estuaries 
George Washington MP 

Lakes and Ponds 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
George Washington MP 



Gettysburg NMP 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 

Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing 
Arts 

Streams 
Booker T. Washington NM 
Chattahoochee River NRA 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Cowpens National Battlefield 
Eisenhower NHS 
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania 

County Battlefields Memorial NMP 
George Washington MP 
Gettysburg NMP 
National Capital Parks 
Guilford Courthouse NMP 
Hopewell Furnace NHS 
Horseshoe Bend NMP 
Kennesaw Mountain National 

Battlefield Park 
Kings Mountain NMP 
Manassas National Battlefield Park 
Monocacy National Battlefield 
Ninety-SixNHS 
Ocmulgee NM 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Valley Forge NHP 
National Capital Parks 
Wolf Trap Farm Park for the Performing 

Arts 

NEW ENGLAND - ADIRONDACKS 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Acadia National Park 

Sculpture of the Land 
Acadia National Park 

Eolian Landforms 
Minute Man NHP 



57 



River Systems and Lakes 
Acadia National Park 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Minute Man NHP 
Saint-Gaudens NHS 

Works of Glaciers 
Acadia National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Acadia National Park 

Caves and Springs 
Acadia National park 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Acadia National Park 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Minute Man NHS 
Morristown NHP 
Saint-Gaudens NHS 
Saratoga NHP 

Land Ecosystems 

Boreal Forest 
Acadia National Park 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Acadia National Park 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Minute Man NHP 
Morristown NHP 
Saint-Gaudens NHS 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Acadia National Park 

Estuaries 
Acadia National Park 



Lakes and Ponds 
Acadia National Park 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Minute Man NHP 
Morristown NHP 
Saint-Gaudens NHS 

Streams 
Acadia National Park 
Eleanor Roosevelt NHS 
Minute Man NHP 
Morristown NHP 
Saint-Gaudens NHS 

ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Congaree Swamp NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
Cape Cod NS 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Fire Island NS 
Fort Washington Park 
Gateway NR A 
George Washington MP 
National Capital Parks 
Piscataway Park 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 

Eolian Landforms 
Assateague Island NS 
Cape Hatteras NS 
Cape Cod NS 
Cumberland Island NS 
Fire Island NS 
Fort Frederica NM 
Fort Pulaski NM 
Gateway NR A 
Wright Brothers National Memorial 

River Systems and Lakes 
National Capital Parks 
Cape Cod NS 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 



58 



Colonial NHP 

Congaree Swamp NM 

Fort Washington Park 

Fort Sumter NM 

Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania 

County Battlefields Memorial NMP 

George Washington MP 

George Washington Birthplace NM 

Greenbelt Park 

National Capital Parks 

Piscataway Park 

Prince William Forest Park 

Richmond National Battlefield Park 

Rock Creek Park 

Theodore Roosevelt Island 

Thomas Stone NHS 

Works of Glaciers 
Fire Island NS 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Assateague Island NS 
Cape Lookout NS 
Cape Hatteras NS 
Cape Cod NS 
Cumberland Island NS 
Fire Island NS 
Fort Pulaski NM 
Fort Raleigh NHS 
Fort Frederica NM 
Fort Caroline National Memorial 
Gateway NRA 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 

Caves and Springs 
Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Fort Washington Park 
George Washington MP 
Greenbelt Park 
National Capital Parks 
Prince William Forest Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Petersburg National Battlefield 



Prince William Forest Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Prince William Forest Park 

*Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
National Capital Parks 
Fort Washington Park 
George Washington MP 
Greenbelt Park 
National Capital Parks 
Petersburg National Battlefield 
Prince William Forest Park 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Cape Cod NS 
Fort Washington Park 
Petersburg National Battlefield 
Piscataway Park 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
National Capital Parks 
Cape Lookout NS 
Cape Cod NS 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Colonial NHP 
Cumberland Island NS 
Fire Island NS 

Fort Caroline National Memorial 
Fort Pulaski NM 
Fort Washington Park 
Fort Frederica NM 
Fort Raleigh NHS 
Gateway NRA 

George Washington Birthplace NM 
George Washington MP 
Greenbelt Park 
Piscataway Park 
Prince William Forest Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
Wright Brothers National Memorial 



59 



Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Assateague Island NS 
National Capital Parks 
Cape Lookout NS 
Cape Hatteras NS 
Cape Cod NS 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Colonial NHP 
Congaree Swamp NM 
Cumberland Island NS 
Fire Island NS 
Fort Frederica NM 
Fort Pulaski NM 

Fort Caroline National Memorial 
Fort Raleigh NHS 
Fort Washington Park 
Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania 

County Battlefields Memorial NMP 
Gateway NRA 

George Washington Birthplace NM 
George Washington MP 
Greenbelt Park 
Greenbelt Park 
National Capital Parks 
Petersburg National Battlefield 
Piscataway Park 
Prince William Forest Park 
Richmond National Battlefield Park 
Rock Creek Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
Thomas Stone NHS 
Wright Brothers National Memorial 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Assateague Island NS 
Cape Lookout NS 
Cape Hatteras NS 
Cape Cod NS 
Cumberland Island NS 
Fire Island NS 
Fort Pulaski NM 
Fort Raleigh NHS 
Fort Frederica NM 
Gateway NRA 



Estuaries 
Assateague Island NS 
Cape Hatteras NS 
Cape Lookout NS 
Cape Cod NS 
Colonial NHP 
Cumberland Island NS 
Fire Island NS 

Fort Caroline National Memorial 
Fort Frederica NM 
Fort Pulaski NM 
Fort Sumter NM 
Fort Washington Park 
Fort Raleigh NHS 
Gateway NRA 

George Washington Birthplace NM 
George Washington MP 
Piscataway Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 
Thomas Stone NHS 

Lakes and Ponds 
National Capital Parks 
Cape Lookout NS 
Cape Hatteras NS 
Cape Cod NS 
Congaree Swamp NM 
Fire Island NS 
Fort Raleigh NHS 
Fort Frederica NM 
Fort Pulaski NM 
Fort Sumter NM 
Gateway NRA 
George Washington MP 
Greenbelt Park 
National Capital Parks 
Piscataway Park 
Prince William Forest Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 

Streams 
National Capital Parks 
Cape Cod NS 

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal NHP 
Colonial NHP 
Congaree Swamp NM 
Cumberland Island NS 



60 



Fire Island NS 

Fort Caroline National Memorial 

Fort Pulaski NM 

Fort Frederica NM 

Fort Washington Park 

Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania 

County Battlefields Memorial NMP 
George Washington MP 
George Washington Birthplace NM 
Greenbelt Park 
National Capital Parks 
Petersburg National Battlefield 
Piscataway Park 
Piscataway Park 
Prince William Forest Park 
Richmond National Battlefield Park 
Theodore Roosevelt Island 

GULF COASTAL PLAIN 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Natchez Trace Parkway 
San Antonio Missions NHP 
Shiloh NMP 

*Cuestas and Hogbacks 

Eolian Landforms 
Gulf Islands NS 
Padre Island NS 

River Systems and Lakes 
Arkansas Post National Memorial 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 
San Antonio Missions NHP 
Vicksburg NMP 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Arkansas Post National Memorial 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Gulf Islands NS 
Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 
Padre Island NS 



Caves and Springs 
Arkansas Post National Memorial 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Padre Island NS 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Arkansas Post National Memorial 
San Antonio Missions NHP 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Gulf Islands NS 

Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 
Padre Island NS 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Arkansas Post National Memorial 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Gulf Islands NS 
Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 
Natchez Trace Parkway 
Padre Island NS 
Shiloh NMP 
Vicksburg NMP 

Grassland 
San Antonio Missions NHP 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Gulf Islands NS 
Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 
Padre Island NS 

Estuaries 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Gulf Islands NS 
Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 

Lakes and Ponds 
Arkansas Post National Memorial 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Gulf Islands NS 



61 



Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 
Padre Island NS 

Streams 
Arkansas Post National Memorial 
Big Thicket National Preserve 
Jean Lafitte NHP and Preserve 
Natchez Trace Parkway 
Padre Island NS 
San Antonio Missions NHP 
Shiloh NMP 
Vicksburg NMP 

FLORIDA PENINSULA 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Everglades National Park 

Eolian Landforms 
Canaveral NS 
Fort Matanzas NM 

River Systems and Lakes 
Big Cypress National Preserve 
Everglades National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Biscayne National Park 
Canaveral NS 
Everglades National Park 
Fort Jefferson NM 
Fort Matanzas NM 

Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
Biscayne National park 
Fort Jefferson NM 

*Caves and Springs 

Geologic History 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Canaveral NS 
Fort Jefferson NM 
Fort Matanzas NM 



Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Canaveral NS 
Fort Matanzas NM 

Tropical Ecosystems 

Big Cypress National Preserve 

Biscayne National Park 

Everglades National Park 
Aquatic Ecosystems 
Marine Environments 

Biscayne National Park 

Canaveral NS 

Everglades National Park 

Fort Jefferson NM 

Fort Matanzas NM 

Estuaries 
Big Cypress National Preserve 
Biscayne National Park 
Canaveral NS 
Everglades National Park 
Fort Jefferson NM 
Fort Matanzas NM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Big Cypress National Preserve 
Canaveral NS 
Everglades National Park 
Fort Matanzas NM 

Streams 
Big Cypress National Preserve 
Biscayne National Park 
Everglades National Park 
Fort Matanzas NM 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
KalaupapaNHP 

Works of Volcanism 
Haleakala National Park 



62 



Kaiaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 

Sculpture of the Land 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 

Eolian Landforms 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 

River Systems and Lakes 
Haleakala National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 

*Works of Glaciers 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP 

Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
Kalaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 

Caves and Springs 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP 

Geologic History 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 



Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 
Pu'uhonua o Honaunau NHP 

* Estuaries 

Lakes and Ponds 
Haleakala National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 
Kaloko-Honokohau NHP 

Streams 
Haleakala National Park 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park 
Kalaupapa NHP 

PACIFIC MOUNTAIN SYSTEM 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Mountain Systems 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Bias National Park and 
Preserve 



63 



Works of Volcanism 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Sculpture of the Land 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Eolian Landforms 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

River Systems and Lakes 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 

Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Works of Glaciers 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 



Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Caves and Springs 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Denali National Park and Preserve 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Denali National Park and Preserve 



64 



Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Wrangell-St Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 

Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 



Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Boreal Forest 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Pacific Forest 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Estuaries 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 



65 



Kenai Fjords National Park 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 

Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Underground Systems 
Wrangell-St Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

Lakes and Ponds 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 

Preserve 

Streams 
Aniakchak NM and Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Glacier Bay National Park and 

Preserve 
Katmai National Park and Preserve 
Kenai Fjords National Park 
Klondike Gold Rush NHP 
Lake Clark National Park and Preserve 
Sitka NHP 

Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and 
Preserve 

INTERIOR AND WESTERN ALASKA 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Mountain Systems 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 



Works of Volcanism 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Bering Land Bridge National Presei\'e 

Sculpture of the Land 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Eolian Landforms 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 

River Systems and Lakes 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Works of Glaciers 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Caves and Springs 

Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Geologic History 
Precambrian Era 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 



66 



Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Boreal Forest 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 



Estuaries 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 

Lakes and Ponds 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

Streams 
Bering Land Bridge National Preserve 
Denali National Park and Preserve 
Yukon-Charley Rivers National 
Preserve 

BROOKS RANGE 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 
Preserve 

Sculpture of the Land 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Eolian Landforms 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 

River Systems and Lakes 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 
Preserve 



67 



Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Works of Glaciers 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Caves and Springs 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 
Preserve 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Noatak National Preserve 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Noatak National Preserve 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Noatak National Preserve 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Noatak National Preserve 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Noatak National Preserve 



Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Boreal Forest 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Cape Krusenstern NM 

Estuaries 
Cape Krusenstern NM 

Lakes and Ponds 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

Streams 
Cape Krusenstern NM 
Gates of the Arctic National Park and 

Preserve 
Kobuk Valley National Park 
Noatak National Preserve 

ARCTIC LOWLAND 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 



68 



* River Systems and Lakes 
*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Marine Environments 

* Estuaries 

* Lakes and Ponds 
*Streams 

VIRGIN ISLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Virgin Islands National Park 

Works of Volcanism 
Virgin Islands National Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Buck Island Reef NM 
Virgin Islands National Park 

Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
Buck Island Reef NM 
Virgin Islands National Park 

Geologic History 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Virgin Islands National Park 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Buck Island Reef NM 
Virgin Islands National Park 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Buck Island Reef NM 



Virgin Islands National Park 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Buck Island Reef NM 
Virgin Islands National Park 

Estuaries 
Virgin Islands National Park 

PUERTO RICO 

Landforms of the Present 

* Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

* Mountain Systems 
*Works of Volcanism 

* River Systems and Lakes 
*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
*Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
*Caves and Springs 

Geologic History 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tropical Ecosystems 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

*Marine Environments 

* Estuaries 
*Streams 

GUAM 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

* Mountain Systems 
*Works of Volcanism 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
War in The Pacific NHP 



69 



Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
War in The Pacific NHP 

Caves and Springs 
War in The Pacific NHP 

Geologic History 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
War in The Pacific NHP 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
War in The Pacific NHP 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
War in The Pacific NHP 

* Estuaries 
*Streams 
AMERICAN SAMOA 

Landforms of the Present 

* Mountain Systems 

*Works of Volcanism 

River Systems and Lakes 
American Memorial Park 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
American Memorial Park 

*Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 

Caves and Springs 
American Memorial Park 

Geologic History 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
American Memorial Park 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
American Memorial Park 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

*Marine Environments 

* Estuaries 

Lakes and Ponds 
American Memorial Park 

THE TRUST TERRITORIES 

Landforms of the Present 

*Mountain Systems 

*Works of Volcanism 

*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

*Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 

Geologic History 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tropical Ecosystems 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

*Marine Environments 

* Estuaries 

Redwood National Park 

*Works of Volcanism 
Olympic National Park 
Point Reyes NS 

Sculpture of the Land 
Golden lake NRA 
Olympic National Park 
Point Reyes NS 
Redwood National Park 

*Eolian Landforms 
Point Reyes NS 

River Systems and Lakes 
Golden Lake NRA 
Olympic National Park 
Point Reyes NS 
Redwood National Park 



70 



Works of Glaciers 
Olympic National Park 

'Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 



71 



THEMATIC REPRESENTATION: 
NATIONAL NATURAL LANDMARKS 




NORTH PACIFIC BORDER 

Landforms of the Present 

*Mountain Systems 

*Works of Volcanism 

*Eolian Landforms 

*River Systems and Lakes 

*Works of Glaciers 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Point of Arches, WA 

*Caves and Springs 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

Pacific Forest 
Point of Arches, WA 
Pygmy Forest, CA 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Audubon Canyon Ranch, CA 
Elder Creek, CA 



Grassland 
Mima Mounds, WA 

*Chaparral 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Point of Arches, WA 

* Estuaries 

*Lakes and Ponds 

Streams 
Elder Creek, CA 
Nisqually Delta, WA 

SOUTH PACIFIC BORDER 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Mt. Diablo State Park, CA 
San Andreas Fault, CA 

Works of Volcanism 
Mt. Diablo State Park, CA 

Sculpture of the Land 
Anza-Borrego Desert State Park, CA 

Eolian Landforms 
Ni porno Dunes-Point Sal Coastal Area, 
CA 

* River Systems and Lakes 



* Not Represented 



73 



Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Ano Nuevo Point and Island, CA 
Ni porno Dunes-Point Sal Coastal Area, 

CA 
Point Lobos, CA 
Tor rey Pines State Reserve, CA 

Geologic History 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
ML Diablo State Park, CA 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Rancho La Brea, CA 

Land Ecosystems 

Pacific Forest 
Point Lobos, CA 
J or rey Pines State Reserve, CA 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Consumnes River Riparian Woodlands, 
CA 

Grassland 
Pixley Vernal Pools, CA 
Sand Ridge Wildf lower Preserve, CA 

Chaparral 
American River Bluffs and Phoenix 

Park Vernal Pools, CA 
Ano Nuevo Point and Island, CA 
Miramar Mounds, CA 
ML Diablo State Park, CA 
Ni porno Dunes-Point Sal Coastal Area, 

CA 
Tijuana River Estuary, CA 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Ano Nuevo Point and Island, CA 
Ni porno Dunes-Point Sal Coastal Area, 
CA 

Estuaries 
Tijuana River Estuary, CA 
Tor rey Pines State Reserve, CA 



Lakes and Ponds 
American River Bluffs ad Phoenix Park 

Vernal Pools, CA 
Pixley Vernal Pools, CA 

Streams 
Consumnes River Riparian Woodlands, 

CA 
Sand Ridge Wildf lower Preserve, CA 

CASCADE RANGE 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Mount Shasta, CA 

Works of Volcanism 
Burney Falls, CA 
Mount Shasta, CA 

*Hot Water Phenomena 

Sculpture of the Land 
Burney Falls, CA 
Crown Point, OR 

Eolian Landforms 
Burney Falls, CA 
Crown Point, OR 

*Works of Volcanism 

* River Systems and Lakes 
*Works of Glaciers 
*Caves and Springs 

Geologic History 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

*Dry Coniferous Forest 



74 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Lakes and Ponds 

* Streams 
SIERRA NEVADA 

Landforms of the Present 

*Mountain Systems 

*Works of Volcanism 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Works of Glaciers 
Emerald Bay, CA 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Sharktooth Hill, CA 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

* Pacific Forest 

*Dry Coniferous Forest 

Chaparral 
Sharktooth Hill, CA 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Emerald Bay, CA 

*Streams 

COLUMBIA PLATEAU 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
HelPs Half Acre Lava Field, ID 
Steptoe and Kamiak Buttes, WA 



Mountain Systems 
Newberry Crater, OR 
Steptoe and Kamiak Buttes, WA 
Umtanum Ridge Water Gap, WA 

Works of Volcanism 
Big Southern Butte, ID 
Crater Rings, ID 
Fort Rock State Monument, OR 
Ginko Petrified Forest, WA 
Grand Coulee, WA 
Grande Ronde Goosenecks, WA 
Grande Ronde Feeder Dikes, WA 
Great Rift System, ID 
Heirs Half Acre Lava Field, ID 
Newberry Crater, OR 
Sheep Rock, ID 

*Hot Water Phenomena 

Sculpture of the Land 
Drumheller Channels, WA 
Grand Coulee, WA 
Grande Ronde Gooseneck, WA 
Sheep Rock, ID 

Umtanum Ridge Water Gap, WA 
Wallula Gap, WA 

River Systems and Lakes 
The Great Gravel Bar of Moses 
Coulee, WA 

Works of Glaciers 
Boulder Park and McNeil Canyon 

Haystack Rocks, WA 
Drumheller Channels, WA 
Grand Coulee, WA 
Sims Corner Eskers and Karnes 

Complex, WA 
The Great Gravel Bar of Moses 

Coulee, WA 
Wallula Gap, WA 
Withrow Moraine and Jameson Lake 

Drumlin Field, WA 

*Caves and Springs 



75 



Geologic History 

Oligocene - Recent Epochs 
Ginko Petrified Forest, WA 
Hagerman Fauna Sites, ID 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Horse Ridge Natural Area, OR 
Rose Creek Preserve, WA 

Grassland 
Daws Canyon, WA 
Lawrence Memorial Grassland 
Preserve, OR 

Deserts 
Hell's Half Acre Lava Field, ID 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Lakes and Ponds 

Streams 
Rose Creek Preserve, WA 

GREAT BASIN 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Mountain Systems 
Valley of Fire, NV 

Works of Volcanism 
Lunar Crater, NV 
Timber Mountain Caldera, NV 

*Hot Water Phenomena 

Sculpture of the Land 
Cassia Silent City of Rocks, ID 
Valley of Fire, NV 



Eolian Landforms 
Eureka Dunes, CA 

* River Systems and Lakes 
*Works of Glaciers 

*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

Caves and Springs 
Hot Creek Springs and Marsh, NV 

Geologic History 

*Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 

*Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 

*Mississippian-Permian Periods 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Ichthyosaur Site, NV 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Timber Mountain Caldera, NV 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

*Dry Coniferous Forest 

Deserts 
Deep Springs Marsh, CA 
Eureka Dunes, CA 
Fish Slough, CA 

Hot Creek Springs and Marsh, NV 
Joshua Tree Natural Area, UT 
Lunar Crater, NV 
Ruby Marsh, NV 
Timber Mountain Caldera, NV 
Valley of Fire, NV 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Deep Springs Marsh, CA 
Fish Slough, CA 



76 



Hot Creek Springs and Marsh, NV 
Ruby Marsh, NV 

*Streams 

MOHAVE-SONORAN DESERT 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Mountain Systems 
Amboy Crater, CA 

Works of Volcanism 
Cinder Cone Natural Area, CA 
Turtle Mountains Natural Area, CA 

Sculpture of the Land 
Rainbow Basin, CA 
Ramsey Canyon, AZ 
Turtle Mountains Natural Area, CA 

River Systems and Lakes 
San Felipe Creek Area, CA 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Trona Pinnacles, CA 

Caves and Springs 
Canelo Hills Cienega, AZ 
Mitchell Caverns and Winding Stair 

Cave, CA 
Onyx Cave, AZ 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 

*Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Rainbow Basin, CA 
Trona Pinnacles, CA 

Land Ecosystems 

* Boreal Forest 



Dry Coniferous Forest 
Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary, AZ 
Ramsey Canyon, AZ 

Grassland 
Canelo Hills Cienega, AZ 
Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary, AZ 

*Chaparral 

Deserts 
Amboy Crater, CA 
Canelo Hills Cienega, AZ 
Grapevine Mesa Joshua Trees, AZ 
Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary, AZ 
Ramsey Canyon, AZ 
San Felipe Creek Area, CA 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Streams 
Canelo Hills Cienega, AZ 
Patagonia-Sonoita Creek Sanctuary, AZ 
Ramsey Canyon, AZ 

CHIHUAHUAN DESERT - MEXICAN 
HIGHLAND 

Landforms of the Present 

*Cuestas and Hogbacks 

*Mountain Systems 

Works of Volcanism 
Kilbourne Hole, NM 

*Sculpture of the Land 

*Eolian Landforms 

* River Systems and Lakes 

*Caves and Springs 

Geologic History 

*Mississippian-Permian Periods 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 



77 



Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Willcox Playa, AZ 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

*Dry Coniferous Forest 

♦Grassland 

*Chaparral 

Deserts 
Kilbourne Hole, NM 
Willcox Playa, AZ 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Willcox Playa, AZ 

*Streams 

COLORADO PLATEAU 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

*Cuestas and Hogbacks 

Mountain Systems 
Little Rockies, UT 

Works of Volcanism 
Grants Lava Flow, NM 
Ship Rock, NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
Barringer Meteor Crater, AZ 
Ship Rock, NM 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Works of Glaciers 
Little Rockies, UT 



Caves and Springs 
Niagara Springs, ID 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 

*Mississippian-Permian Periods 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, UT 
Comb Ridge, AZ 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Kaibab Squirrel Area, AZ 

*Grassland 

Deserts 
Grants Lava Flow, NM 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Grants Lava Flow, NM 

*Streams 

NORTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

* Mountain Systems 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Works of Glaciers 
Glacial Lake Missoula, MT 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Middle Fork Canyon, MT 



78 



Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

Pacific Forest 
Hobo Cedar Grove Botanical Area, ID 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife 
Refuge, MT 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife 
Refuge, MT 

*Streams 

MIDDLE ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

*Cuestas and Hogbacks 

* Mountain Systems 
*Works of Volcanisms 
*Hot Water Phenomena 
*Sculpture of the Land 

* River Systems and Lakes 

*Works of Volcanism 

Caves and Springs 
Big Springs, ID 
Neffs Canyon Cave, UT 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Bridger Fossil Area, MT 
Crooked Creek Natural Area, MT 



*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

*Dry Coniferous Forest 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Lakes and Ponds 

Streams 
Two Ocean Pass, WY 

WYOMING BASIN 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Red Canyon, WY 

Eolian Landforms 
Big Hollow, WY 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Geologic History 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Sand Creek, WY 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Bone Cabin Fossil Area, WY 
Como Bluff, WY 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Grassland 

Deserts 
Big Hollow, WY 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

*Lakes and Ponds 



79 



*Streams 

SOUTHERN ROCKY MOUNTAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

*Mountain Systems 

Works of Volcanism 
Valles Caldera, NM 

Sculpture of the Land 
Lost Creek Scenic Area, CO 
Slumguillion Earthflow, CO 

*Eolian Landforms 

* River Systems and Lakes 
*Works of Glaciers 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Ghost Ranch, NM 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Summit Lake, CO 

* Boreal Forest 

*Dry Coniferous Forest 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

* Lakes and Ponds 

* Streams 
GREAT PLAINS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Border Hills Structural Zone, NM 
Muleshoe National Wildlife Refuge, TX 



Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Morrison Fossil Area, CO 
Rock City, KS 
Roxborough State Park, CO 

Mountain Systems 
Border Hills Structural Zone, NM 
Cathedral Spires and Limber Pine 

Natural Area, SD 
Garden of the Gods, CO 
High Plains Natural Area, TX 
Roxborough State Park, CO 

Works of Volcanism 
Bear Butte, SD 
Raton Mesa, CO 
Spanish Peaks, CO 
Square Butte, Ml 
Steptoe and Kamiak Buttes, WA 

Sculpture of the Land 
Big Basin Preserve, KS 
Bijou Hills, SD 
Cathedral Spires and Limber Pine 

Natural Area, SD 
Dinosaur Valley, TX 
Enchanted Rock, TX 
Garden of the Gods, CO 
Lost Maples State Natural Area, TX 
Monument Rocks Natural Area, KS 
Odessa Meteor Crater, TX 
Palo Duro Canyon State Park, TX 
Rock City, KS 
Snake Butte, SD 
The Castles, SD 
Two-Top Mesa and Big Top Mesa, ND 

Eolian Landforms 
Mescalero Sands South Dune, NM 
Nebraska Sand Hills, NE 
Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, NE 

River Systems and Lakes 
Muleshoe National Wildlife Refuge, TX 
Nebraska Sand Hills, NE 
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, 
OK 



80 



Works of Glaciers 
Fischer Lake, ND 
Medicine Lake Site, MT 
Sibley Lake, ND 

Caves and Springs 
Caverns of Sonora, TX 
Devil's Sink Hole, TX 
Fort Station Cave, NM 
Longhorn Cavern, TX 
Torgac Cave, NM 

Geologic History 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Indian Springs Trace Fossil Site, CO 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Garden of the Gods, CO 
Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, SD 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Bug Creek Fossil Area, MT 
Capitol Rock, MT 
Dinosaur Trackway, CT 
Garden of the Gods, CO 
Hell Creek Fossil Area, MT 
Lance Creek Fossil Area, WY 
Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, SD 
Monument Rocks Natural Area, KS 
Palo Duro Canyon State Park, TX 
The Castles, SD 

Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 
Capitol Rock, MT 
The Castles, SD 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Capitol Rock, MT 
Garden of the Gods, CO 

Land Ecosystems 

* Boreal Forest 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Cathedral Spires and Limber Pine 

Natural Area, SD 
Garden of the Gods, CO 



Little Blanco River Bluff, TX 
Lost Maples State Natural Area, TX 
Mathers Research Natural Area, NM 
Roxborough State Park, CO 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Fort Randall Eagle Roost, SD 

Grassland 
Big Basin Preserve, KS 
Bueyeros Shortgrass Plains, NM 
Fischer Lake, ND 

Mathers Research Natural Area, NM 
Mescalero Sands South Dune, NM 
Muleshoe National Wildlife Refuge, TX 
Nebraska Sand Hills, NE 
Palo Duro Canyon State Park, TX 
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, 

OK 
Two-Top Mesa and Big Top Mesa, ND 
Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, NE 

Deserts 
Bitter Lake Group, NM 
Garden of the Gods, CO 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Bitter Lake Group, NM 
Fischer Lake, ND 
Red Lake, SD 
Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge, 

OK 
Sibley Lake, ND 
Valentine National Wildlife Refuge, NE 

*Streams 

CENTRAL LOWLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Davis-Purdue Agricultural Center 
Forest, IN 



81 



Hueston Woods, OH 
Shrader-WeaverWoods, IN 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Duke Natural Research Area, Ml 

Mountain Systems 
Baraboo Range, Wl 

Sculpture of the Land 
Allerton Natural Area, IL 
Baldwin Woods, KS 
Big Walnut Creek, IN 
Clifton Gorge, OH 
Devil's Canyon, OK 
Fults Hill Prairie Nature Preserve, IL 
Glen Helen Natural Area, OH 
Grand Mere Lakes, Ml 
Greenwood Canyon, TX 
Highbanks Natural Area, OH 
Kickapoo River Natural Area, Wl 
Lakeview Marsh and Barrier Beach, 

NY 
Loess Hills, I A 
Mississippi Palisades, IL 
Pine Hills Natural Area, IN 
Portland and Arch Nature Preserve, IN 
Rocky Hollow-Falls Canyon Nature 

Preserve, IN 

Eolian Landforms 
Cowles Bog, IN 
Dunes Nature Preserve, IN 
Grand Mere Lakes, Ml 
Hoosier Prairie, IN 
Loess Hills, I A 

River Systems and Lakes 
Allerton Natural Area, IL 
Avoca River-Bottom Prairie, Wl 
Bergen-Byron Swamp, NY 
Big Walnut Creek, IN 
Clifton Gorge, OH 
Dead Stream Swamp, Ml 
Forest of the Wabash, IL 
Funks Grove, IL 
Glen Helen Natural Area, OH 



Hanging Rock and Wabash Reef, IN 

Hoosier Prairie, IN 

Hueston Woods, OH 

Kickapoo River Natural Area, Wl 

Newton Woods, Ml 

Pine Hills Natural Area, IN 

Portland and Arch Nature Preserve, IN 

Rocky Hollow-Falls Canyon Nature 

Preserve, IN 
Shrader-WeaverWoods, IN 
Sica Hollow, SD 

Tamarack Bog Nature Preserve, IN 
Volo Bog Nature Preserve, IL 
Warren Woods Natural Area, Ml 
Wauconda Bog Natural Preserve, IL 

Works of Glaciers 
Abraham's Woods, Wl 
Ancient River Warren Channel, SD 
Anderson Goose Lake, I A 
Avoca River-Bottom Prairie, Wl 
Baraboo Range, Wl 
Bergen-Byron Swamp, NY 
Black Spruce Bog Natural Area, Ml 
Buffalo Slough, SD 
Busse Forest Natural Preserve, IL 
Calvert and Porter Woods Nature 

Preserve, IN 
Clifton Gorge, OH 
Cottonwood Slough-Dry Run, SD 
Davis-Purdue Agricultural Center 

Forest, IN 
Dead Stream Swamp, Ml 
Dewey Pasture and Smith's Slough, I A 
Duke Natural Research Area, Ml 
Funks Grove, IL 

Glacial Grooves State Memorial, OH 
Hanging Rock and Wabash Reef, IN 
Harts Woods, NY 
Haven Hill State Natural Area, Ml 
Ironsides Island, NY 
Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, 

MN 
Loess Hills, I A 
Meltzler Woods, IN 
Mendon Ponds Park, NY 
Montezuma Marshes, NY 



82 



Newton Woods, Ml 

Pinhook Bog, IN 

Roscommon Virgin Pine Stand, Ml 

Rush Lake, ND 

Shrader-WeaverWoods, IN 

Sica Hollow, SD 

Summerton Bog, Wl 

Tamarack Bog Nature Preserve, IN 

Tourney Woodlot, Ml 

Upper Red Lake Peatland, MN 

Volo Bog Nature Preserve, IL 

Warren Woods Natural Area, Ml 

Zurich Bog, NY 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Dunes Nature Preserve, IN 
Grand Mere Lakes, Ml 
Illinois Beach Natural Preserve, IL 
Ironsides Island, NY 
Lakeview Marsh and Barrier Beach, 

NY 
Point Beach Ridges, Wl 
Presque Isle, PA 

Ridges Sanctuary-Toffs Point Mud- 
Lake Area, Wl 
Tobico Marsh, Ml 

Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
Hanging Rock and Wabash Reef, IN 

Caves and Springs 
Glen Helen Natural Area, OH 
Kickapoo River Natural Area, Wl 
Marengo Cave, IN 
Mark Twain and Cameron Caves, MO 

Geologic History 

Precambrian Era 
Baraboo Range, Wl 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Duke Natural Research Area, Ml 
Hanging Rock and Wabash Reef, IN 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Fossil Coral Reef, NY 
Glen Helen Natural Area, OH 



Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Big Walnut Creek, IN 
Fults Hill Prairie Nature Preserve, IL 
Pine Hills Natural Area, IN 
Rocky Hollow-Falls Canyon Nature 
Preserve, IN 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Greenwood Canyon, TX 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Allerton Natural Area, IL 
Black Spruce Bog Natural Area, Ml 
Davis-Purdue Agricultural Center 

Forest, IN 
Loess Hills, I A 
Mendon Ponds Park, NY 
Montezuma Marshes, NY 

Land Ecosystems 

Boreal Forest 

Cedar Creek Natural History Area- 
Allison Savanna, MN 

Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, 
MN 

Pine Point Research Natural Area, MN 

Ridges Sanctuary-Tofts Point-Mud 
Lake Area, Wl 

Spruce Lake Bog, Wl 

Summerton Bog, Wl 

Upper Red Lake Peatland, MN 

Dry Coniferous Forest 
Cedar Creek Natural History Area- 
Allison Savanna, MN 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Abraham's Woods, Wl 
Allerton Natural Area, IL 
Baldwin Woods, KS 
Baraboo Range, Wl 
Bergen-Byron Swamp, NY 
Big Walnut Creek, IN 
Black Spruce Beg Natural Area, Ml 
Blacklick Woods, OH 
Bose Lake Hemlock Hardwoods, Wl 
Busse Forest Natural Preserve, IL 



83 



Calvert and Porter Woods Nature 

Preserve, IN 
Cedarburg Bog, Wl 
Chippewa River Bottoms, Wl 
Cowles Bog, IN 
Crall Woods, OH 
Davis-Purdue Agricultural Center 

Forest, IN 
Dead Stream Swamp, Ml 
DeviPs Canyon, OK 
Duke Natural Research Area, Ml 
Dunes Nature Preserve, IN 
Dunes Nature Preserve, IN 
Fern Cliff, IN 
Fontenelle Forest, NE 
Forest of the Wabash, IL 
Fort Worth Nature Center and Refuge, 

TX 
Fults Hill Prairie Nature Preserve, IL 
Funks Grove, IL 
Goll Woods, OH 
Harts Woods, NY 
Haven Hill State Natural Area, Ml 
Hazelwood Botanical Preserve, OH 
Highbanks Natural Area, OH 
Highbanks Natural Area, OH 
Hoosier Prairie, IN 
Hoot Woods, IN 
Hueston Woods, OH 
Illinois Beach Natural Preserve, IL 
Ironsides Island, NY 
Itasca Natural Area, MN 
Kickapoo River Natural Area, Wl 
Lakeview Marsh and Barrier Beach, 

NY 
Maple Woods Natural Area, MO 
Meltzer Woods, IN 
Mentor Marsh, OH 
Mississippi Palisades, IL 
Montezuma Marshes, NY 
Newton Woods, Ml 
Oak Orchard Creek Marsh, NY 
Pine Hills Natural Area, IN 
Pinhook Bog, IN 
Point Beach Ridges, Wl 
Portland and Arch Nature Preserve, IN 



Rocky Hollow-Falls Canyon Nature 

Preserve, IN 
Roscommon Virgin Pine Stand, Ml 
Shrader-WeaverWoods, IN 
Sica Hollow, SD 
Summerton Bog, Wl 
Tamarack Bog Nature Preserve, IN 
Tobico Marsh, Ml 
Tourney Woodlot, Ml 
Warren Woods Natural Area, Ml 
White Pine Hollow Preserve, I A 
Wyalusing Hardwood Forest, Wl 
Zurich Bog, NY 

Grassland 
Allerton Natural Area, IL 
Avoca River-Bottom Prairie, Wl 
Baker University Wetlands, KS 
Buffalo Slough, SD 
Cayler Prairie, I A 

Cedar Creek Natural History Area- 
Allison Savanna, MN 
Chiwaukee Prairie, Wl 
Cottonwood Slough-Dry Run, SD 
Fontenelle Forest, NE 
Fort Worth Nature Center and Refuge, 

TX 
Fults Hill Prairie Nature Preserve, IL 
Golden Prairie, MO 
Hayden Prairie, I A 
Hoosier Prairie, IN 
Illinois Beach Natural Preserve, IL 
Sica Hollow, SD 
Taberville Prairie, MO 
Tucker Prairie, MO 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Estuaries 
Dexter Marsh, NY 
Montezuma Marshes, NY 

Lakes and Ponds 
Anderson Goose Lake, I A 
AppletonBog Atlantic White Cedar 

Stand, ME 
Baker University Wetlands, KS 
BeckleyBog, CT 



84 



Bergen-Byron Swamp, NY 

Bingham Pond Bog, CT 

Black Spruce Bog Natural Area, Ml 

Busse Forest Natural Preserve, IL 

Cabin Creek Raised Bog, IN 

Carrying Place Cove Bog, ME 

Cedarburg Bog, Wl 

Cowles Bog, IN 

Crystal Bog, ME 

Dead Stream Swamp, Ml 

Devil's Canyon, OK 

Dewey Pasture and Smith's Slough, I A 

Dexter Marsh, NY 

Duke Natural Research Area, Ml 

East Inlet Natural Area, NH 

Fischer Lake, ND 

Floating Island, NH 

Grand Mere Lakes, Ml 

Haven Hill State Natural Area, Ml 

Hawley Bog, MA 

Heath Pond Bog, NH 

Hoosier Prairie, IN 

Illinois Beach Natural Preserve, IL 

Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, 

MN 
Lake Thompson, SD 
Lakeview Marsh and Barrier Beach, 

NY 
Mantua Swamp, OH 
Mendon Ponds Park, 
Mentor Marsh, OH 
Mentor Marsh, OH 
Molly Bog, VT 
Montezuma Marshes, 
No. 5 Bog and Jack Pine Stand, ME 
Oak Orchard Creek Marsh, NY 
Orono Bog, ME 
Pinhook Bog, IN 
Pinhook Bog, IN 
Pondicherry Wildlife Refuge, NH 
Rush Lake, ND 
Spruce Lake Bog, Wl 
Spruce Hole Bog, NH 
Summerton Bog, Wl 
Tamarack Bog Nature Preserve, IN 
Tobico Marsh, Ml 
Upper Red Lake Peatland, MN 



NY 



NY 



Volo Bog Nature Preserve, IL 
Wauconda Bog Natural Preserve, IL 
Zurich Bog, NY 

Streams 
Big Walnut Creek, IN 
Kickapoo River Natural Area, Wl 

SUPERIOR UPLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Porcupine Mountain, Ml 

Eolian Landforms 
StrangmoorBog, Ml 

River Systems and Lakes 
Porcupine Mountain, Ml 

*Works of Glaciers 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Kakagon Sloughs, Wl 

Geologic History 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Porcupine Mountain, Ml 
StrangmoorBog, Ml 

Land Ecosystems 

Boreal Forest 
Finnerud Forest Scientific Area, Wl 
Keeley Creek Natural Area, MN 
Lac La Croix Research Natural Area, 
MN 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Flambeau River Hemlock-Hardwood 

Forest, Wl 
Lac La Croix Research Natural Area, 

MN 
Porcupine Mountain, Ml 
StrangmoorBog, Ml 



85 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Kakagon Sloughs, Wl 
Porcupine Mountain, Ml 
StrangmoorBog, Ml 

INTERIOR HIGHLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

*Piains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

* Mountain Systems 

Hot Water Phenomena 
Grand Gulf, MO 
Little Grand Canyon Area, IL 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Cupola Pond, MO 

Little Grand Canyon Area, IL 

Caves and Springs 
Carroll Cave, MO 
Grand Gulf, MO 
Greer Spring, MO 
Mammoth Spring, MO 
Marmec Spring, MO 
Marvel Cave, MO 
Onondaga Cave, MO 
Pickle Springs, MO 
Tumbling Creek Cave, MO 

Geologic History 

*Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 

*Mississippian-Permian Periods 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Greer Spring, MO 
Lake Wiona Natural Area, AR 
LaRue-Pine Hills Ecological Area, IL 
Little Grand Canyon Area, IL 
McCurtain County Wilderness Area, OK 
Roaring Branch Research Natural 

Area, AR 
Wegener Woods, MO 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Carroll Cave, MO 
Tumbling Creek Cave, MO 

Lakes and Ponds 
Cupola Pond, MO 
LaRue-Pine Hills Ecological Area, IL 

Streams 
Onondaga Cave, MO 

INTERIOR LOW PLATEAUS 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Officer's Woods, IN 

Sculpture of the Land 
Bell Smith Springs, IL 
Giant City Geological Area, IL 
Heron Pond-Little Black Slough Nature 

Area, IL 
Lusk Creek Canyon, IL 

River Systems and Lakes 
Ohio Coral Reef (Falls of the Ohio), KY 

and IN 
Heron Pond-Little Black Slough Nature 

Area, IL 
Officer's Woods, IN 

*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

Caves and Springs 
Big Bone Cave, TN 
Conley County, TN 
Cumberland Cavern, TN 
Donaldson Cave System and Woods, 

IN 
Harrison Spring, IN 
Rise at Orangeville, IN 
Shelta Cave, AL 
Tolliver Swallowhole, IN 
WesleyChapelGulfJN 
Wyandotte Cave, IN 



86 



Geologic History 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Fort Hill State Memorial, OH 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Ohio Coral Reef (Falls of the Ohio), KY 

and IN 
Fort Hill State Memorial, OH 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Fort Hill State Memorial, OH 
Wyandotte Cave, IN 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Big Bone Cave, TN 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Arnold Engineering Development 

Center Natural Areas, TN 
Bell Smith Springs, IL 
Cedar Glades Natural Area, TN 
Donaldson Cave System and Woods, 

IN 
Fort Hill State Memorial, OH 
Giant City Geological Area, IL 
Hemmer Woods, IN 
Henderson Sloughs, KY 
Heron Pond-Little Black Slough Nature 

Area, IL 
Kramer Woods, IN 
Lower Cache River Swamp, IL 
Lusk Creek Canyon, IL 

Grassland 
May Prairie, TN 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 
Cumberland Cavern, TN 
Shelta Cave, AL 

Lakes and Ponds 
Arnold Engineering Development 

Center Natural Areas, TN 
Beaverdam Creek Swamp, AL 
Henderson Sloughs, KY 



Heron Pond-Little Black Slough Nature 

Area, IL 
Lower Cache River Swamp, IL 

Streams 
Tolliver Swallowhole, IN 

APPALACHIAN PLATEAUS 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Cuestas and Hogbacks 
Buzzardroost Rock-Lynx Prairie-The 
Wilderness, OH 

*Mountain Systems 

Works of Volcanism 
Palisades of the Hudson, NJ 

Sculpture of the Land 
Deer Lick Nature Sanctuary, NY 
Fall Brook Gorge, NY 
Holden Natural Areas, OH 
Newsome Sinks Karst Area, AL 
Palisades of the Hudson, NJ 
Pine Creek Gorge, PA 
Piney Falls, TN 
Red River Gorge, KY 
Serpent Mound Cryptoexplosive 
Structure, OH 

Eolian Landforms 
The Glens Natural Area, PA 

River Systems and Lakes 
Lake Lacawac, PA 
Pine Creek Gorge, PA 
Round Lake, NY 

Works of Glaciers 
Brown's Lake Bog, OH 
Clear Fork Gorge, OH 
Hickory Run Boulder Field, PA 
McConnelPs Mill State Park, PA 
McLean Bogs, NY 



87 



Moss Island, NY 
Moss Lake Bog, NY 
Palisades of the Hudson, 
Tamarack Swamp, PA 



NJ 



Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Moss Island, NY 

Caves and Springs 
Cathedral Caverns, AL 
Grassy Cove Karst Area, TN 
Lost World Caverns, WV 
Newsome Sinks Karst Area, AL 

Geologic History 

*Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Fall Brook Gorge, NY 

*Mississippian-Permian Periods 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Palisades of the Hudson, NJ 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Canaan Valley, WV 
Fischer Spring Run Bog, WV 
Moss Island, NY 
Palisades of the Hudson, NJ 

Land Ecosystems 

Boreal Forest 
Canaan Valley, WV 
Gaudineer Scenic Area, WV 
Long Hope Creek Spruce Bog, NC 
Mount Mitchell State Park, NC 
Shavers Mountain Spruce-Hemlock 
Stand, WV 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Arthur B. Williams Memorial Woods, 

OH 
Bear Swamp, NY 
Buzzardroost Rock-Lynx Prairie-The 

Wilderness, OH 
Camp E. F. Boyd Natural Area, GA 



Cathedral Park, WV 

Clear Fork Gorge, oH 

Cook Forest, PA 

Cranberry Bog, OH 

Deer Lick Nature Sanctuary, NY 

Dick Cove, TN 

Dysart Woods, OH 

Ferncliff Peninsula Natural Area, PA 

Hearts Content Scenic Area, PA 

Holden Natural Areas, OH 

Lilley Cornett Woods, KY 

McConnelPs Mill State Park, PA 

McLean Bogs, NY 

Moss Lake Bog, NY 

Piney Falls, TN 

Red River Gorge, KY 

Rock Creek Research Natural Area, KY 

Round Lake, NY 

Savage Gulf, TN 

Shavers Mountain Spruce-Hemlock 

Stand, WV 
Tamarack Swamp, PA 
Tannerville Cranberry Bog, PA 
The Glens Natural Area, PA 
Tinkers Creek Gorge, OH 
Tionesta Scenic and Research Natural 

Areas, PA 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Bear Swamp, NY 
Big Run Bog, WV 
Blister Run Swamp, WV 
Brown's Lake Bog, OH 
Cranberry Glades Botanical Area, WV 
Cranesville Swamp Nature Santuary, 

WV 
Fischer Spring Run Bog, WV 
Lake Lacawac, PA 
Mantua Swamp, OH 
McLean Bogs, NY 
Moss Lake Bog, NY 
Reynolds Spring and Algerine Swamp 

Bogs, PA 
Round Lake, NY 
Tamarack Swamp, PA 
Tamarack Swamp, PA 



88 



Tannerville Cranberry Bog, PA 
Titus and Wattsburg Bogs, PA 
White Pine Bog Forest, OH 

Streams 
Ferncliff Peninsula Natural Area, PA 

APPALACHIAN RANGES 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Stone Mountain, NC 

Mountain Systems 
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, PA 

Sculpture of the Land 
Susquehanna Water Gaps, PA 

River Systems and Lakes 
Sunfish Pond, NJ 

Works of Glaciers 
Sunfish Pond, NJ 
Susquehanna Water Gaps, PA 

Caves and Springs 
Butler Cave-Breathing Cave, VA 
Ellenville Fault-Ice Caves, NY 
Germany Valley Karst Area, WV 
Grand Cavern, VA 
Greenbrier Caverns, WV 
Greenville Saltpeter Cave, WV 
Lost Sea, TN 
Luray Caverns, VA 
Sinnett-Thorn Mountain Cave System, 

WV 
Swago Karst Area, WV 

Geologic History 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Petrified Gardens, NY 

*Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 

*Mississippian-Permian Periods 



*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

Land Ecosystems 

* Boreal Forest 

*Dry Coniferous Forest 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Box Huckleberry Site, PA 
Florence Jones Reineman Wildlife 

Sanctuary, PA 
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, PA 
Hemlocks Natural Area, PA 
Long Hope Creek Spruce Bog, NC 
Marshall Forest, GA 
Mount Jefferson State Park, NC 
Rich Hole, VA 

Sag Ponds Natural Area, GA 
Snyder-Middleswarth Natural Area, PA 
Stone Mountain, NC 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Underground Systems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Bear Meadows Natural Area, PA 
Sag Ponds Natural Area, GA 

*Streams 

PIEDMONT 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Panola Mountain, GA 

Mountain Systems 
Fiat Creek Natural Area and 40 Acre 

Rock, SC 
Gilpin's Falls, MD 
Hook Mountain and Nyack Beach 

State Park, NY 
Orbicular Diorite, NC 
Sugar Loaf Mountain, MD 



89 



Sculpture of the Land 
Flat Creek Natural Area and 40 Acre 

Rock, SC 
Hook Mountain and Nyack Beach 

State Park, NY 
Moggy Hollow Natural Area, NJ 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Works of Glaciers 
Hook Mountain and Nyack Beach 

State Park, NY 
Moggy Hollow Natural Area, NJ 

Caves and Springs 
Flat Creek Natural Area and 40 Acre 
Rock, SC 

Geologic History 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
Wissahickon Valley, PA 
Gilpin's Falls, MD 

Late Silurian-Devonian Periods 
Monroe Border Fault, PA 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Flat Creek Natural Area and 40 Acre 
Rock, SC 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Hook Mountain and Nyack Beach 
State Park, NY 

Land Ecosystem 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Cason J. Calloway Memorial Forest, 

Ga 
Flat Creek Natural Area and 40 Acre 

Rock, SC 
Feme I iff Wildf lower and Wildlife 

Preserve, PA 
Heggie's Rock, GA 
John De La Howe Forest, SC 
Panola Mountain, GA 
Piedmont Beach Natural Area, NC 
Stevens Creek Natural Area, NC 



William L Hutcheson Memorial Forest, 
NJ 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Tinicum Wildlife Preserve, PA 

Lakes and Ponds 
lona Island Marsh, NY 

Streams 
Gilpin's Falls, MD 

NEW ENGLAND-ADIRONDACKS 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Bigelow Mountain, ME 
Camel's Hump, VT 
Franconia Notch, NH 
Mount Katahdin, ME 
Mount Mansfield Natural Area, VT 

Works of Volcanism 
Great Falls of Patterson-Garrett 
Mountain, NJ 

Sculpture of the Land 
Franconia Notch, NH 
Great Falls of Patterson-Garrett 

Mountain, NJ 
Gulf Hagas, ME 
Mianus River Gorge, NY 

River Systems and Lakes 
AppletonBog Atlantic White Cedar 

Stand, ME 
Fannie Stebbins Refuge, MA 
Gulf Hagas, ME 
Lake Willoughby Natural Area, VT 

Works of Glaciers 
Carrying Place Cove Bog, ME 
Franconia Notch, NH 
Great Swamp, NJ 
Lake Willoughby Natural Area, VT 
Madison Boulder, NH 



90 



Monhegan Island, ME 
Mount Katahdin, ME 
Passadumkeag Marsh and Boglands, 

ME 
Penny Pond-Joe Pond Complex, ME 
Spruce Hole Bog, NH 
Thompson Pond, NY 

*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

Geologic History 

*Precambrian Era 

Cambrian-Early Silurian Periods 
CamePs Hump, VI 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Dinosaur Trackway, CT 
Riker Hill Fossil Site, NJ 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Bigelow Mountain, ME 
Camel's Hump, VT 
Mount Katahdin, ME 
Mount Mansfield Natural Area, VT 

Boreal Forest 
CamePs Hump, VT 
Gulf Hagas, ME 
Meddybemps Heath, ME 
Monhegan Island, ME 
Mount Katahdin, ME 
Mount Mansfield Natural Area, VT 
Passadumkeag Marsh and Boglands, 
ME 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
AppletonBog Atlantic White Cedar 

Stand, ME 
Bartholomew's Cobble, MA 
Barton River Marsh, VT 
Battel! Biological Preserve, VT 
BeckleyBog, CT 
Bingham Pond Bog, CT 
CamePs Hump, VT 
Carrying Place Cove Bog, ME 



Cathedral Pines, CT 

Chester Cedar Swamp, CT 

Colby-Marston Preserve, ME 

Cold River Virgin Forest, MA 

Cornwall Swamp, VT 

Crystal Bog, ME 

Ell Pond, Rl 

Fannie Stebbins Refuge, MA 

Fisher-Scott Memorial Pines, Vt 

Floating Island, NH 

Franconia Notch, NH 

Franklin Bog, VT 

Gifford Woods, VT 

Heath Pond Bog, NH 

Lake Willoughby Natural Area, VT 

Little Otter Creek Marsh, VT 

Lynnfield Marsh, MA 

McLean Game Refuge Natural Area, 

CT 
Mianus River Gorge, NY 
Molly Bog, VT 
Mount Katahdin, ME 
Mount Mansfield Natural Area, VT 
New Gloucester Black Gum Stand, ME 
Orono Bog, ME 

Pachaug-Great Meadow Swamp, CT 
Passadumkeag Marsh and Boglands, 

ME 
Penny Pond-Joe Pond Complex, ME 
Poutwater Pond, MA 
Rhododendron Natural Area, NH 
Spruce Hole Bog, NH 
The Hermitage, ME 
White Lake Pitch Pine, NH 
Thompson Pond, NY 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Monhegan Island, ME 

Estuaries 
lona Island Marsh, NY 
North and South Rivers, MA 

Lakes and Ponds 
Achusnet Cedar Swamp, MA 
Barton River Marsh, VT 



91 



Chester Cedar Swamp, CT 

Cornwall Swamp, VT 

Ell Pond, Rl 

Great Swamp, NJ 

lona Island Marsh, NY 

Lake Willoughby Natural Area, VT 

Little Otter Creek MArsh, Vt 

Lynnfield Marsh, MA 

Meddybemps Heath, ME 

Pachaug-Great Meadow Swamp, CT 

Passadumkeag Marsh and Boglands, 

ME 
Penny Pond- Joe Pond Complex, ME 
Pondicherry Wildlife Refuge, NH 
Poutwater Pond, MA 
Troy Meadows, NJ 

Streams 
Barton River Marsh, VT 
North and South Rivers, MA 

ATLANTIC COASTAL PLAIN 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Sculpture of the Land 
Camp E. F. Boyd Natural Area, GA 

Eolian Landforms 
Bear Island, NC 
Nags Head Wood and Jockey Ridge, 

NC 
Seashore Natural Area, VA 

River Systems and Lakes 
Great Dismal Swamp, VA 

Works of Glaciers 
Muskeget Island, MA 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Bear Island, NC 
Gardiner's Island, NY 
Gay Head Cliffs, MA 
Goose Creek State Park Natural Area, 
NC 



Long Beach, Orient State Park, NY 

Muskeget Island, MA 

Nags Head Wood and Jockey Ridge, 

NC 
Seashore Natural Area, VA 
Smith Island, NC 
St. Phillip's Island, SC 
Virginia Coast Reserve, VA 
Wassaw Island, GA 

Geologic History 

Mississippian-Permian Periods 
Gay Head Cliffs, MA 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Gay Head Cliffs, MA 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Belt Woods, MD 
Big Hammock Natural Area, GA 
Caledon State Park, VA 
Camp E. F. Boyd Natural Area, GA 
Congaree River Swamp, SC 
Francis Beidler Forest, SC 
Green Swamp, NC 
Long Green Creek and Sweathouse 

Branch, MD 
Long Beach, Orient State Park, NY 
Manahawkin Bottomland Hardwood 

Forest, NJ 
Osceola Research Natural Area, FL 
Pigeon Swamp, NJ 
Salyer's Ridge Natural Area, NC 
Stone Harbor Bird Sanctuary, NJ 
Virginia Coast Reserve, VA 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Bear Island, NC 
Gardiner's Island, NY 
Goose Creek State Park Natural Area, 

NC 
Long Beach, Orient State Park, NY 



92 



Nags Head Wood and Jockey Ridge, 

NC 
Smith Island, NC 
St. Phillip's Island, SC 
Virginia Coast Reserve, VA 
Wassaw Island, GA 

Estuaries 
Gardiner's Island, NY 
St. Phillip's Island, SC 

Lakes and Ponds 
Battle Creek Cypress Swamp, MD 
Big Reed Pond, NY 
Charles C. Steirly Natural Area, VA 
Congaree River Swamp, SC 
Ebenezer Creek Swamp, GA 
Francis Beidler Forest, SC 
Goose Creek State Park Natural Area, 

NC 
Great Dismal Swamp, VA 
Green Swamp, NC 
Lewis Island Tract, GA 
Okefenokee Swamp, GA 
Pigeon Swamp, NJ 
Seashore Natural Area, VA 
St. Phillip's Island, SC 

Streams 
Ebenezer Creek Swamp, GA 
Francis Beidler Forest, SC 

GULF COASTAL PLAIN 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

*Cuestas and Hogbacks 

Sculpture of the Land 
Dismals, AL 

River Systems and Lakes 
Bayside Resaca Area, TX 
Big Lake Natural Area, AR 
Catfish Creek, TX 



Horseshoe Lake Natural Preserve, IL 
ReelfootLake, TN 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Bayside Resaca Area, TX 

Caves and Springs 
Ezell's Cave, TX 
Ichetucknee Springs, FL 
Natural Bridge Caverns, TX 
Wakulla Springs, FL 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Mississippi Petrified Forest, MS 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Bienville Pines Scenic Area, MS 
Big Oak Tree, MO 
Chestnut Oak Disjunct, MS 
Dismals, AL 

Florida Caverns Natural Area, FL 
Horseshoe Lake Natural Preserve, IL 
McAnulty's Woods, TN 
Mobile-Tensaw River Bottomlands, AL 
Torreya State Park, FL 
White River Sugarberry Natural Area, 
AR 

Grassland 
Attwater Prairie Chicken Preserve, TX 
Harrell Prairie Hill, MS 
Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, TX 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Bayside Resaca Area, TX 
Mobile-Tensaw River Bottomlands, AL 

Estuaries 
Mobile-Tensaw River Bottomlands, AL 



93 



Underground Systems 
Florida Caverns Natural Area, FL 

Lakes and Ponds 
Big Lake Natural Area, AR 
Green Ash-Overcup Oak-Sweetgum 

Research Natural Areas, MS 
Horseshoe Lake Natural Preserve, IL 
Mobile-Tensaw River Bottomlands, AL 
Santa Ana National Wildlife Refuge, TX 
Spooner Springs, GA 
White River Sugarberry Natural Area, 

AR 

Streams 
Catfish Creek, TX 
Wakulla Springs, FL 

FLORIDA PENINSULA 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Lignumvitae Key, FL 
Reed Wilderness Seashore Sanctuary, 

FL 
Waccasassa Bay State Preserve, FL 

*Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 

Caves and Springs 
Manatee Springs, FL 
Rainbow Springs, FL 

Geologic History 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Eastern Deciduous Forest 
Devil's Millhopper, FL 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Big Cypress Bend, FL 
Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, FL 



Lignumvitae Key, FL 
Reed Wilderness Seashore Sanctuary. 
FL 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Lignumvitae Key, FL 
Reed Wilderness Seashore Sanctuary, 
FL 

* Estuaries 

* Underground Systems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Big Cypress Bend, FL 
Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary, FL 
Devil's Millhopper, FL 
Emeralda Marsh, FL 
Paynes Prairie, FL 

Streams 
Manatee Springs, FL 
Rainbow Springs, FL 
Silver Springs, FL 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Diamond Head, HI 
Koolau Range Pali, HI 
Mauna Kea, HI 

Works of Volcanism 
Diamond Head, HI 
lao Valley, HI 
Koolau Range Pali, HI 
Mauna Kea, HI 
North Shore Cliffs, HI 

Sculpture of the Land 
lao Valley, HI 
Koolau Range Pali, HI 

*Eolian Landforms 



94 



* River Systems and Lakes 

Works of Glaciers 
Mauna Kea, HI 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

North Shore Cliffs, HI 
*Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 

Geologic History 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Kanaha Pond, HI 
Makalawena Marsh, HI 

*Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
North Shore Cliffs, HI 

* Estuaries 

Lakes and Ponds 
Kanaha Pond, HI 
Makalawena Marsh, HI 
Mauna Kea, HI 

*Streams 

PACIFIC MOUNTAIN SYSTEM 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Mountain Systems 
Aniakchak Caldera 
lliamna Volcano, AK 
Mount Veniaminof, AK 
Redoubt Volcano, AK 
Shishaldin Volcano, AK 

Works of Volcanism 
Aniakchak Caldera 
Bogoslof Island, AK 
lliamna Volcano, AK 



Mount Veniaminof, AK 
Redoubt Volcano, AK 
Worthington Glacier, AK 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Simeonoff National Wildlife Refuge, AK 

Geologic History 

Oligocene-Recent Epochs 
Middleton Island, AK 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Mount Veniaminof, AK 

* Boreal Forest 

* Pacific Forest 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Bogoslof Island, AK 
Simeonoff National Wildlife Refuge, AK 

* Estuaries 

Lakes and Ponds 
Lake George, AK 

Streams 
McNeil River State Game Sanctuary, 
AK 

INTERIOR AND WESTERN ALASKA 

Landforms of the Present 

Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 
Clarence Rhode National Wildlife 
Range, AK 

*Mountain Systems 

* River Systems and Lakes 
*Works of Glaciers 

*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 



95 



Geologic History 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Tundra 
Clarence Rhode National Wildlife 
Range, AK 

* Boreal Forest 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

*Marine Environments 

* Estuaries 

* Lakes and Ponds 
*Streams 
BROOKS RANGE 

Landforms of the Present 

* Mountain Systems 

Works of Volcanism 
Arrigetch Peaks, AK 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Works of Glaciers 
Arrigetch Peaks, AK 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

* Boreal Forest 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Lakes and Ponds 
Walker Lake, AK 

*Streams 



ARCTIC LOWLAND 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

* River Systems and Lakes 
*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

Geologic History 

*Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

*Tundra 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

*Marine Environments 

*Estuaries 
*Lakes and Ponds 
*Streams 
VIRGIN ISLANDS 

Landforms of the Present 

* Mountain Systems 

*Works of Volcanism 

*Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 

Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
Green Cay, VI 
Lagoon Point, VI 
Salt River Bay, VI 
West End Cays, VI 

Geologic History 

Triassic-Cretaceous Periods 
Green Cay, VI 
Coki Point Cliffs, VI 
Vagthus Point, VI 



96 



*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Sandy Point, VI 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Lagoon Point, VI 
Sandy Point, VI 
Salt River Bay, VI 

Estuaries 
Salt River Bay, VI 

PUERTO RICO 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Mountain Systems 
Bano De Oro Natural Area, PR 

*Works of Volcanism 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Cabo Rojo, PR 
Puerto Mosquito, PR 

Geologic History 

*Paleocene-Eocene Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Bano De Oro Natural Area, PR 
Cabo Rojo, PR 
Rio Aba jo Forest, PR 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Mona and Monita Islands, PR 
Puerto Mosquito, PR 



Estuaries 
Cabo Rojo, PR 
Puerto Mosquito, PR 

*Streams 

GUAM 

Landforms of the Present 

*Plains, Plateaus, and Mesas 

Mountain Systems 
Facpi Point, GU 
Fouha Point, GU 
Mount Lamlam, GU 

Works of Volcanism 
Facpi Point, GU 
Fouha Point, GU 
Mount Lamlam, GU 

* River Systems and Lakes 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Facpi Point, GU 
Fouha Point, GU 
Puntan Dos Amantes, GU 

Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
Facpi Point, GU 
Fouha Point, GU 
Puntan Dos Amantes, GU 

Caves and Springs 
Facpi Point, GU 
Fouha Point, GU 
Puntan Dos Amantes, GU 

Geologic History 

*Oligocene-Recent Epochs 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Mount Lanlam, GU 



97 



Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Facpi Point, GU 
Fouha Point, GU 
Poutan Dos Amantes, GU 

* Estuaries 
*Streams 
AMERICAN SAMOA 

Landforms of the Present 

Mountain Systems 
Rainmaker Mountain 

Works of Volcanism 

Aunuu Island 

Fogamaa Crater 

Matafao Peak 

Rainmaker Mountain 

Vaiava Strait 
i 
Sculpture of the Land 

Leala Shoreline 

Seashores, Lakeshores, and Islands 
Aunuu Island 
Leala Shoreline 

Coral Islands, Reefs, and Atolls 
Aunuu Island 
Cape Taputapu 
Leala Shoreline 

Geologic History 

Land Ecosystems 

Tropical Ecosystems 
Matafao Peak 

Aquatic Ecosystems 

Marine Environments 
Leala Shoreline 

* Estuaries 

98 



As the nation's principal conservation agency, the Department of the Interior has 
responsibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural and cultural 
resources. This includes fostering wise use of our land and water resources, 
protecting our fish and wildlife, preserving the environmental and cultural values of our 
national parks and historical places, and providing for enjoyment of life through 
outdoor recreation. The department assesses our energy and mineral resources and 
works to ensure that their development is in the best interests of all our people. The 
department also promotes the goals of the Take Pride in America campaign by 
encouraging stewardship and citizen responsibility for the public lands and promoting 
citizen participation in their care. The department also has a major responsibility for 
American Indian reservation communities and for people who live in island territories 
under U.S. administration. 

NPS D-545 September 1 990 

99